A Literary and Historical Atlas of Asia Part 4

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=Arafat= ('the mountain of mercy'), Arabia. 21N. 40E. Mountain on which Adam and Eve are alleged to have met after the fall. Scene of many Mohammedan pilgrimages. (See Burton's 'Pilgrimage to Al-Madinah and Meccah,' Burckhardt's 'Travels in Arabia.')

=Arantangi=, Madras. 10N. 79E. Seized by Raghunatha Levan, c. 1646, 1698.

=Ararat=, Asiatic Turkey. 40N. 44E. One of mountains in Asia on which Noah's ark is said to have rested. Parrot first ascended Great Ararat, 1829. Severe earthquake experienced, 1840. (See 'Travels of Marco Polo.')

=Arcot= ('six deserts'), Madras. 13N. 79E. Contains ruins of Nawab's palace. Mentioned by Ptolemy. Clive defended city successfully against siege, 1751.

=Ardahan=, Asiatic Turkey. 41N. 43E. Successfully stormed by Russians, 1877; ceded to Russia by Turkey, 1878.

=Argaum=, Berar. 21N. 77E. Mahrattas defeated by Wellesley, 1803.

=Arginusae Is.=, off W. coast of Asia Minor. 39N. 27E. Spartan fleet defeated by Athenians near these islands, 406 B.C.

=Arjesh=, Turkish Armenia. 39N. 43E. Taken by Jelal-ed-Din, 1228.

Destroyed by earthquake, 1246.

=Arni=, Madras. 13N. 79E. Clive defeated Raja Sahib and French forces, 1751.

=Aror=, Bombay. 28N. 69E. Captured by Mohammedans, c. 712.

=Arpad=, Syria. 37N. 37E. Taken by Tiglath Pileser II., 740 B.C.

=Arrah=, Bengal. 26N. 85E. In Indian Mutiny 12 Englishmen and 50 Sikhs held out against 3000 Sepoys for 8 days, 1857.

=Artaxata=, Russian Armenia. 39N. 45E. Ancient capital of Armenia, now in ruins. Hannibal supposed to have superintended building of city; named after Artaxis I., c. 180 B.C. Destroyed by Romans, 58; by Persians, 370.

Joseph, the patriarch, presided over ecclesiastical council, 450.

=Ashdod=, Palestine. 32N. 35E. Captured by Jonathan, 147 B.C. Mentioned by Herodotus. Contained famous temple of Dagon. (See Thomson's 'Land and the Book.')

=Ashta=, Central India. 23N. 77E. Contains fort built by Dost Mohammed Khan, 1716; captured by Mahrattas, 1745; stormed by Kudsia Begam, 1837.

=Ashta=, Bombay. 18N. 75E. British defeated Baji Rao Peshwa, 1818.

=Asirgarh=, Central Provs. 21N. 76E. Massacre of garrison by Ala-ud-din Khilji, 1295; captured by Akbar, 1600; by General Wellesley, 1803; besieged by British, 1819.

=Askelon=, Palestine. 32N. 35E. Ancient seat of worship of Astarte, and of Dagon and Dercetis, whose temple was plundered by Scythians, 630 B.C.

Bp. of Herod I., who embellished it. Godfrey de Bouillon defeated Egyptians, 1099; city taken by Crusaders, 1153; by Saladin, 1187; destroyed by Sultan Bibars, 1270. (See Scott's 'The Talisman.')

=Assaye=, Haidarabad. 20N. 76E. Mahrattas conquered by Sir Arthur Wellesley, 1803. (See Malleson's 'Decisive Battles of India.')

=Athni=, Bombay. 17N. 75E. Visited by French traveller Mandelslo, 1639.

Yielded to Rajah Sahu of Satara, 1730; British possession, 1839.

=Atrauli=, N.W. Provs. 28N. 78E. Held for three months by Mohammedans during Mutiny, 1857.

=Attock=, Punjab. 34N. 72E. Contains fort built by Akbar, 1581; captured by Ranjit Singh, 1812.

=Augur=, Central India. 24N. 76E. F. by Agra Bhil; destroyed by Bapuji Sindhia, 1801; suffered during Mutiny, 1857.

=Aurangabad= ('the abode of Aurungzebe'), Haidarabad. 20N. 75E. F. in 1620. Contains Buddhist caves, and mausoleum built by Aurungzebe in memory of his daughter.

=Ava= ('a fish-pond'), Burma. 22N. 96E. F. by Thadominpaya, 1364. Former capital of Burma. Ruined by earthquake, 1839.

=Ayodhya=, United Provs. 27N. 82E. Famous in legend as city of Dasa-ratha, father of Rama. (See 'Ramayana.')

=Ayuthia=, Siam. 14N. 101E. Founded in 1351; capital of Siam until nearly destroyed by Burmese, 1767. Chief ruin is a Buddhist temple, the 'Golden Mount.' (See Little's 'Far East.')

=Baalbek= ('city of Baal'), Syria. 34N. 36E. Contains Temple of the Sun, built by Antoninus Pius. Taken by Arabs, 748; by Tamerlane, 1400.

Destroyed by earthquake, 1170, 1750. (See Twain's 'New Pilgrim's Progress,' Lamartine's 'Voyage en Orient,' Moore's 'Lalla Rookh,'

Volney's 'Voyage en Syrie et en Egypte,' Burckhardt's 'Travels in Syria and the Holy Land.')

=Babylon= ('the gate of the god'), Asiatic Turkey. 33N. 45E. First mentioned, 3800 B.C.; capital of Babylonia, c. 2300 B.C. Destroyed by Sennacherib, 689 B.C.; attained eminence under Nabopolassar, 625-604 B.C.; under Nebuchadnezzar, 604-561 B.C. Surrendered to Cyrus, 539 B.C.

Alexander the Great died in palace of Nebuchadnezzar, 323 B.C. (See 'Purchas His Pilgrimes,' Hakluyt's 'Voyages.')

=Badami=, Bombay. 16N. 76E. Contains famous cave-temple, f. 650. Captured by General Munro, 1818; by Arabs, 1840.

=Badarpur=, Bengal. 25N. 93E. British defeated Burmese, 1824.

=Badnera=, Berar. 21N. 78E. Partially destroyed by Rajah Ram, 1822.

=Bagalkot=, Bombay. 16N. 76E. Captured by Peshwa of Savanur, 1775; by Hyder Ali, 1778; by General Munro, 1818.

=Baghdad=, Asiatic Turkey. 33N. 44E. F. by Caliph Al-Mansur, c. 762; embellished by Harun-al-Rashid; taken by Hulaku Khan, 1258; by Tamerlane, 1393; by Amurath IV., 1638. Contains tomb of Zobeida, wife of Harun-al-Rashid, and is famous by means of the 'Arabian Nights.' (See Firdausi's 'Sha Name,' Gosse's 'Firdausi in Exile,' 'Purchas His Pilgrimes,' 'Travels of Marco Polo.')

=Baghput=, Punjab. 29N. 77E. Said to be the Vyaghraprastha mentioned in the 'Mahabharata.'

=Bahera=, Punjab. 32N. 73E. Captured by Babar, 1519; pillaged by Nur-ud-din, 1757.

=Bahraich=, United Provs. 28N. 82E. Contains tomb of Mohammedan saint, Masaud.

=Baj-Baj=, Bengal. 22N. 88E. Fort captured by Clive from Siraj-ud-daula, 1756.

=Bajwara=, Punjab. 32N. 76E. Rajah Sansar Chand conquered Sirdar Bhup Singh, 1801; fort captured by Ranjit Singh, 1825.

=Balkh=, Afghan Turkestan. 37N. 67E. Zoroaster first preached his doctrine, 549 B.C.; died at Balkh. Visited by Chinese explorer, Fa Hian, 402; Hiouen Thsang, 643; by Marco Polo, 1263. Besieged and taken by Ninus, 1933 B.C.; pillaged by Genghis Khan, 1221; destroyed by Tamerlane, 1390. (See 'Travels of Marco Polo.')

=Bamian=, Afghanistan. 35N. 68E. Destroyed by Genghis Khan, 1221.

=Bander Abbas= ('harbour of Abbas'), Persia. 27N. 56E. Ancient Harmozia.

Portuguese driven out by Shah Abbas the Great with help of British, 1623. (See Moore's 'Lalla Rookh,' story of 'The Fire-Worshippers.')

=Bandhogarh=, Central India. 24N. 81E. Attacked by Asaf Khan, 1563; captured by Patr Das, 1597; yielded to Anup Singh, 1658. Said to be bp.

of Akbar.

=Banera=, Rajputana. 26N. 75E. Conquered by Akbar, 1567; fort built in 1726; captured by Rajah of Shahpura, c. 1756.

=Bangalore=, Mysore. 13N. 78E. F. by Hyder Ali, 1537. Taken by Lord Cornwallis, 1791. Contains palace of Tippoo Sahib, and Central College.

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