The Psychology of Management Part 30
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1. personal responsibility.
2. responsibility for others.
3. appreciation of standing.
1. Personal responsibility is developed by
(a) Individual recognition. When the worker was considered merely as one of a gang, it was very easy for him to shift responsibilities upon others. When he knows that he is regarded by the management, and by his mates, as an individual, that what he does will show up in an individual record, and will receive individual reward or punishment, necessarily personal responsibility is developed.
Moreover, this individual recognition is brought to his mind by his being expected to fill out his own instruction card. In this way, his personal responsibility is specifically brought home to him.
(b) The appreciation which comes under Scientific Management. This appreciation takes the form of reward and promotion, and of the regard of his fellow-workers; therefore, being a growing thing, as it is under Scientific Management, it insures that his personal responsibility, shall also be a growing thing, and become greater the longer he works under Scientific Management.
2. Responsibility for others is provided for by the inter-relation of all functions. It is not necessary that all workers under Scientific Management should understand all about it.
However, many do understand, and the more that they do understand, the more they realize that everybody working under Scientific Management is more or less dependent upon everybody else. Every worker must feel this, more or less, when he realizes that there are eight functional bosses over him, who are closely related to him, on whom he is dependent, and who are more or less dependent upon him.
The very fact that the planning is separated from the performing, means that more men are directly interested in any one piece of work; in fact, that every individual piece of work that is done is in some way a bond between a great number of men, some of whom are planning and some of whom are performing it. This responsibility for others is made even more close in the dependent bonuses which are a part of Scientific Management, a man's pay being dependent upon the work of those who are working under him. Certainly, nothing could bring the fact more closely to the attention of each and every worker under this system, than associating it with the pay envelope.
3. Appreciation of standing is fostered by
(a) individual records. Through these the individual himself knows what he has done, his fellows know, and the management knows.
(b) comparative records, which show even those who might not make the comparison, exactly how each worker stands, with relation to his mates, or with relation to his past records.
This appreciation of standing is well exemplified in the happy phrasing of Mr. Gantt--"There is in every workroom a fashion, or habit of work, and the new worker follows that fashion, for it isn't respectable not to. The man or woman who ignores fashion does not get much pleasure from associating with those that follow it, and the new member consequently tries to fall in with the sentiment of the community. Our chart shows that the stronger the sentiment in favor of industry is, the harder the new member tries and the sooner he succeeds."
4. Self-control is developed by
(a) the habits of inhibition fostered by Scientific Management,--that is to say, when the right habits are formed, necessarily many wrong habits are eliminated.
It becomes a part of Scientific Management to inhibit all inattention and wrong habits, and to concentrate upon the things desired. This is further aided by (b) the distinct goal and the distinct task which Scientific Management gives, which allow the man to hold himself well in control, to keep his poise and to advance steadily.
5. "Squareness." This squareness is exemplified first of all by the attitude of the management. It provides, in every way, that the men are given a "square deal," in that the tasks assigned are of the proper size, and that the reward that is given is of the proper dimensions, and is assured. This has already been shown to be exemplified in many characteristics of Scientific Management, and more especially in the inspection and in the disciplining.
MORAL DEVELOPMENT RESULTS IN CONTENTMENT, BROTHERHOOD AND THE "WILL TO DO".--The three results of this moral development are
1. contentment 2. brotherhood 3. a "will to do."
1. Contentment is the outgrowth of the personal responsibility, the appreciation of standing, and the general "squareness" of the entire plan of Scientific Management.
2. The idea of brotherhood is fostered particularly through the responsibility for others, through the feeling that grows up that each man is dependent upon all others, and that it is necessary for every man to train up another man to take his place before he can be advanced. Thus it comes about that the old caste life, which so often grew up under Traditional Management, becomes abolished, and there ensues a feeling that it is possible for any man to grow up into any other man's place. The tug-of-war attitude of the management and men is transformed into the attitude of a band of soldiers scaling a wall. Not only is the worker pulled up, but he is also forced up from the bottom.
3. The "will to do" is so fostered by Scientific Management that not only is the worker given every incentive, but he, personally, becomes inspired with this great desire for activity, which is after all the best and finest thing that any system of work can give to him.
INTERRELATION OF PHYSICAL, MENTAL AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT.--As to the interrelation of physical, mental and moral development, it must never be forgotten that the mind and the body must be studied together, and that this is particularly true in considering the mind in management. For the best results of the mind, the body must be cared for, and provided for, fully as much as must the mind, or the best results from the mind will not, and cannot, be obtained.
Successful management must consider the results of all mental states upon the health, happiness and prosperity of the worker, and the quality, quantity and cost of the output. That is to say, unless the mind is kept in the right state, with the elimination of worry, the body cannot do its best work, and, in the same way, unless the body is kept up to the proper standard, the mind cannot develop.
Therefore, a really good system of management must consider not only these things separately, but in their interrelation,--and this Scientific Management does.
RESULT OF PHYSICAL, MENTAL AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT IS INCREASED CAPACITY.--The ultimate result of all this physical improvement, mental development and moral development is increased capacity, increased capacity not only for work, but for health, and for life in general.
WELFARE WORK AN INTEGRAL PART OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT.-- Strictly speaking, under Scientific Management, there should be no necessity for a special department of Welfare Work. It should be so incorporated in Scientific Management that it is not to be distinguished. Here the men are looked out for in such a way under the operation of Scientific Management itself that there is no necessity for a special welfare worker. This is not to say that the value of personality will disappear under Scientific Management, and that it may not be necessary in some cases to provide for nurses, for physical directors, and for advisers. It will, however, be understood that the entire footing of these people is changed under Scientific Management. It is realized under Scientific Management that these people, and their work, benefit the employers as much as the employes. They must go on the regular payroll as a part of the efficiency equipment. The workers must understand that there is absolutely no feeling of charity, or of gift, in having them; that they add to the perfectness of the entire establishment.
RESULTS OF WELFARE TO THE WORK.--Because of Welfare Work, of whatever type, more and better work is accomplished, with only such expenditure of effort as is beneficial to the worker. Not only does the amount of work done increase, but it also tends to become constant, after it has reached its standard expected volume.
RESULT OF WELFARE WORK TO THE WORKER.--This description of welfare of the men under Scientific Management, in every sense of the word welfare, has been very poor and incomplete if from it the reader has not deduced the fact that Scientific Management enables the worker not only to lead a fuller life in his work, but also outside his work; that it furnishes him hours enough free from the work to develop such things as the work cannot develop; that it furnishes him with health and interest enough to go into his leisure hours with a power to develop himself there; that it furnishes him with a broader outlook, and, best of all, with a capacity of judging for himself what he needs most to get. In other words, if Scientific Management is what it claims to be, it leads to the development of a fuller life in every sense of the word, enabling the man to become a better individual in himself, and a better member of his community.
If it does not do this it is not truly Scientific Management. Miss Edith Wyatt has said, very beautifully, at the close of her book, "Making Both Ends Meet": "No finer dream was ever dreamed than that the industry by which the nation lives, should be so managed as to secure for the men and women engaged in it their real prosperity, their best use of their highest powers. How far Scientific Management will go toward realizing the magnificent dream in the future, will be determined by the greatness of spirit and the executive genius with which its principles are sustained by all the people interested in its inauguration, the employers, the workers and the engineers."
We wish to modify the word "dream" to the word "plan." The plan of Scientific Management is right, and, as Miss Wyatt says, is but waiting for us to fulfill the details that are laid out before us.
CONCLUSION.--The results thus far attained by Scientific Management justify a prediction as to its future. It will accomplish two great works.
1. It will educate the worker to the point where workers will be fitted to work, and to live.
2. It will aid the cause of Industrial Peace.
It will put the great power of knowledge into every man's hands.
This it must do, as it is founded on cooperation, and this cooperation demands that all shall know and shall be taught.
With this knowledge will come ability to understand the rights of others as well as one's own. "To know all is to pardon all."
Necessity for cooperation, and trained minds:--These two can but lead to elimination of that most wasteful of all warfare--Industrial Warfare. Such will be the future of Scientific Management,--whether it win universal approval, universal disapproval, or half-hearted advocacy to-day.
When the day shall come that the ultimate benefits of Scientific Management are realized and enjoyed, depends on both the managers and the workers of the country; but, in the last analysis, the greatest power towards hastening the day lies in the hands of the workers.
To them Scientific Management would desire to appeal as a road up and out from industrial monotony and industrial turmoil. There are many roads that lead to progress. This road leads straightest and surest,--and we can but hope that the workers of all lands, and of our land in particular, will not wait till necessity drives, but will lead the way to that true "Brotherhood" which may some day come to be.
CHAPTER X FOOTNOTES: ===============================================
1. H.L. Gantt, _Work, Wages and Profits_, p. 115, p. 121.
2. Pp. 171-172.
3. H.L. Gantt, _Work, Wages and Profits_, pp. 154-155.
4. F.W. Taylor, _Shop Management_, para. 170, Harper Ed., p. 76.
5. William James, _Psychology, Advanced Course_. Vol. II, p. 372.
6. See remarkable work of Dr. A. Imbert, _Evaluation de la Capacite de Travail d'un Ouvrier Avant et Apres un Accident; Les Methodes du Laboratoire appliquees a l'Etude directe et pratique des Questions ouvrieres._ 7. Clark and Wyatt, Macmillan, pp. 269-270.
The Psychology of Management Part 30
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