The Death and Life of the great American School System Part 9

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15 Richard Rothstein, "Comment," Richard Rothstein, "Comment," Brookings Papers on Education Policy Brookings Papers on Education Policy (2004), 26-27. (2004), 26-27.

16 Robert Gordon, Thomas J. Kane, and Douglas O Staiger, "Identifying Effective Teachers Using Performance on the Job," Discussion Paper 2006- 01, Brookings Inst.i.tution, Was.h.i.+ngton, D.C., 5-6. Robert Gordon, Thomas J. Kane, and Douglas O Staiger, "Identifying Effective Teachers Using Performance on the Job," Discussion Paper 2006- 01, Brookings Inst.i.tution, Was.h.i.+ngton, D.C., 5-6.

17 Ibid., 8. Ibid., 8.

18 Some educators created personality profiles to screen potential teachers, but economists ignored them; Some educators created personality profiles to screen potential teachers, but economists ignored them; www.ed.gov/news/newsletters/innovator/2004/0223.html.

19 Dale Ballou, "Sizing Up Test Scores," Dale Ballou, "Sizing Up Test Scores," Education Next Education Next, Summer 2002, 12-13, 15.

20 Dan Goldhaber and Michael Hansen, Dan Goldhaber and Michael Hansen, a.s.sessing the Potential of Using Value-Added Estimates of Teacher Job Performance for Making Tenure Decisions a.s.sessing the Potential of Using Value-Added Estimates of Teacher Job Performance for Making Tenure Decisions (Was.h.i.+ngton, D.C.: CALDER, Urban Inst.i.tute, 2008), 1, 5-6. (Was.h.i.+ngton, D.C.: CALDER, Urban Inst.i.tute, 2008), 1, 5-6.

21 Cory Koedel and Julian R. Betts, "Re-examining the Role of Teacher Quality in the Educational Production Function," Working Paper #2007-03, National Center on Performance Incentives, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 2007; Helen F. Ladd, "Teacher Effects: What Do We Know?" 2008, Cory Koedel and Julian R. Betts, "Re-examining the Role of Teacher Quality in the Educational Production Function," Working Paper #2007-03, National Center on Performance Incentives, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 2007; Helen F. Ladd, "Teacher Effects: What Do We Know?" 2008, www.sesp.northwestern.edu/docs/Ladd_Northwestern_paper_042108.pdf.

22 Brian A. Jacob, Lars Lefgren, and David Sims, "The Persistence of Teacher-Induced Learning Gains," NBER Working Paper 14065, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA, 2008, 30, 33. Brian A. Jacob, Lars Lefgren, and David Sims, "The Persistence of Teacher-Induced Learning Gains," NBER Working Paper 14065, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA, 2008, 30, 33.

23 Jesse Rothstein, "Teacher Quality in Educational Production: Tracking, Decay, and Student Achievement," Princeton University and NBER, Cambridge, MA, 2009, Jesse Rothstein, "Teacher Quality in Educational Production: Tracking, Decay, and Student Achievement," Princeton University and NBER, Cambridge, MA, 2009, www.princeton.edu/~jrothst/published/rothstein_vam_may152009.pdf; Debra Viadero, "'Value-Added' Gauge of Teaching Probed," Education Week Education Week, July 15, 2009.

24 Malcolm Gladwell, "Most Likely to Succeed: How Do We Hire When We Can't Tell Who's Right for the Job?" Malcolm Gladwell, "Most Likely to Succeed: How Do We Hire When We Can't Tell Who's Right for the Job?" New Yorker New Yorker, December 15, 2008.

25 Nicholas D. Kristof, "Our Greatest National Shame," Nicholas D. Kristof, "Our Greatest National Shame," New York Times New York Times, February 15, 2009.

26 Teach for America Web site, Teach for America Web site, www.teachforamerica.org/about/our_history.htm; see also Donna Foote, Relentless Pursuit: A Year in the Trenches with Teach for Am Relentless Pursuit: A Year in the Trenches with Teach for America (New York: Knopf, 2008).

27 Ildiko Laczko-Kerr and David C. Berliner, "The Effectiveness of 'Teach for America' and Other Under-Certified Teachers on Student Academic Achievement: A Case of Harmful Public Policy," Ildiko Laczko-Kerr and David C. Berliner, "The Effectiveness of 'Teach for America' and Other Under-Certified Teachers on Student Academic Achievement: A Case of Harmful Public Policy," Education Policy a.n.a.lysis Archives Education Policy a.n.a.lysis Archives 10, no. 37 (September 6, 2002). 10, no. 37 (September 6, 2002).

28 Paul T. Decker, Daniel P. Mayer, and Steven Glazerman, Paul T. Decker, Daniel P. Mayer, and Steven Glazerman, The Effects of Teach for America on Students: Findings from a National Evaluation The Effects of Teach for America on Students: Findings from a National Evaluation (Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research, 2004). (Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research, 2004).

29 Linda Darling-Hammond et al., "Does Teacher Preparation Matter? Evidence About Teacher Certification, Teach for America, and Teacher Effectiveness," Linda Darling-Hammond et al., "Does Teacher Preparation Matter? Evidence About Teacher Certification, Teach for America, and Teacher Effectiveness," Education Policy a.n.a.lysis Archives Education Policy a.n.a.lysis Archives 13, no. 42 (October 12, 2005). 13, no. 42 (October 12, 2005).

30 Zeyu Xu, Jane Hannaway, and Colin Taylor, Zeyu Xu, Jane Hannaway, and Colin Taylor, Making a Difference? The Effects of Teach for America in High School Making a Difference? The Effects of Teach for America in High School (Was.h.i.+ngton, D.C.: CALDER, Urban Inst.i.tute, 2009), 3; Charles T. Clotfelter, Helen F. Ladd, and Jacob L. Vigdor, "Teacher Credentials and Student Achievement in High School: A Cross-Subject a.n.a.lysis with Student Fixed Effects," NBER Working Paper 13617, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA, 2007. (Was.h.i.+ngton, D.C.: CALDER, Urban Inst.i.tute, 2009), 3; Charles T. Clotfelter, Helen F. Ladd, and Jacob L. Vigdor, "Teacher Credentials and Student Achievement in High School: A Cross-Subject a.n.a.lysis with Student Fixed Effects," NBER Working Paper 13617, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA, 2007.

31 Thomas J. Kane, Jonah E. Rockoff, and Douglas O. Staiger, "Photo Finish: Teacher Certification Doesn't Guarantee a Winner," Thomas J. Kane, Jonah E. Rockoff, and Douglas O. Staiger, "Photo Finish: Teacher Certification Doesn't Guarantee a Winner," Education Next Education Next 7, no. 1 (Winter 2007): 64. See also Kane, Rockoff, and Staiger, "What Does Certification Tell Us About Teacher Effectiveness? Evidence from New York City," NBER Working Paper 12155, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA, 2006. 7, no. 1 (Winter 2007): 64. See also Kane, Rockoff, and Staiger, "What Does Certification Tell Us About Teacher Effectiveness? Evidence from New York City," NBER Working Paper 12155, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA, 2006.

32 Linda Darling-Hammond et al., "Does Teacher Preparation Matter?" 14; Kane, Rockoff, and Staiger, "What Does Certification Tell Us About Teacher Effectiveness? Evidence from New York City," 34; Donald Boyd et al., "How Changes in Entry Requirements Alter the Teacher Workforce and Affect Student Achievement," Linda Darling-Hammond et al., "Does Teacher Preparation Matter?" 14; Kane, Rockoff, and Staiger, "What Does Certification Tell Us About Teacher Effectiveness? Evidence from New York City," 34; Donald Boyd et al., "How Changes in Entry Requirements Alter the Teacher Workforce and Affect Student Achievement," Education Finance and Policy Education Finance and Policy 1, no. 2 (Spring 2006): 207. 1, no. 2 (Spring 2006): 207.

33 Phil Gonring, Paul Teske, and Brad Jupp, Phil Gonring, Paul Teske, and Brad Jupp, Pay-for-Performance Teacher Compensation: An Inside View of Denver's ProComp Plan Pay-for-Performance Teacher Compensation: An Inside View of Denver's ProComp Plan (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press, 2007). (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press, 2007).

34 Susan Sclafani and Marc S. Tucker, Susan Sclafani and Marc S. Tucker, Teacher and Princ.i.p.al Compensation: An International Review Teacher and Princ.i.p.al Compensation: An International Review (Was.h.i.+ngton, D.C.: Center for American Progress, 2006), 19-21, 42. (Was.h.i.+ngton, D.C.: Center for American Progress, 2006), 19-21, 42.

CHAPTER TEN.

1 In the mid-1960s, the Black Power movement became a political force, demanding black control of inst.i.tutions located in black communities. In the mid-1960s, the Black Power movement became a political force, demanding black control of inst.i.tutions located in black communities.

2 For a description of the clash between the Ocean Hill-Brownsville district and the United Federation of Teachers, see Diane Ravitch, For a description of the clash between the Ocean Hill-Brownsville district and the United Federation of Teachers, see Diane Ravitch, The Great School Wars: New York City, 1805-1973 The Great School Wars: New York City, 1805-1973 (New York: Basic Books, 1974), 352-378. (New York: Basic Books, 1974), 352-378.

3 Historians continue to debate whether the concerted efforts of Northern philanthropists on behalf of African American children in the South were helpful. Some contend that they colluded with the white leaders.h.i.+p to close down private and sectarian black schools and to push black children into public school systems that were controlled by unsympathetic, racist whites. Eric Anderson and Alfred A. Moss Jr., Historians continue to debate whether the concerted efforts of Northern philanthropists on behalf of African American children in the South were helpful. Some contend that they colluded with the white leaders.h.i.+p to close down private and sectarian black schools and to push black children into public school systems that were controlled by unsympathetic, racist whites. Eric Anderson and Alfred A. Moss Jr., Dangerous Donations: Northern Philanthropy and Southern Black Education, 1902-1930 Dangerous Donations: Northern Philanthropy and Southern Black Education, 1902-1930 (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1999). (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1999).

4 David Halberstam, "The Very Expensive Education of McGeorge Bundy," David Halberstam, "The Very Expensive Education of McGeorge Bundy," Harper's Harper's, July 1969, 21-41; Ravitch, "Foundations: Playing G.o.d in the Ghetto," Center Forum Center Forum 3 (May 15, 1969): 24-27. 3 (May 15, 1969): 24-27.

5 See, for example, Raymond Domanico, Carol Innerst, and Alexander Russo, See, for example, Raymond Domanico, Carol Innerst, and Alexander Russo, Can Philanthropy Fix Our Schools? Appraising Walter Annenberg's $500 Million Gift to Public Education Can Philanthropy Fix Our Schools? Appraising Walter Annenberg's $500 Million Gift to Public Education (Was.h.i.+ngton, D.C.: Thomas B. Fordham Foundation, 2000), for case studies of New York City, Chicago, and Philadelphia. (Was.h.i.+ngton, D.C.: Thomas B. Fordham Foundation, 2000), for case studies of New York City, Chicago, and Philadelphia.

6 Domanico et al., Domanico et al., Can Philanthropy Fix Our Schools? Can Philanthropy Fix Our Schools?,28-29; Alyson Klein, "Bush Calls for Resolve on NCLB Renewal," Education Week Education Week, January 8, 2009.

7 Frederick M. Hess, introduction to Frederick M. Hess, introduction to With the Best of Intentions: How Philanthropy Is Reshaping K-12 Education, With the Best of Intentions: How Philanthropy Is Reshaping K-12 Education, ed. Frederick M. Hess (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press, 2005), 4-5. ed. Frederick M. Hess (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press, 2005), 4-5.

8 Ibid., 5-6. Ibid., 5-6.

9 Ibid., 9-11. Ibid., 9-11.

10 The Web site of the Walton Family Foundation, The Web site of the Walton Family Foundation, www.waltonfamilyfoundation.org/aboutus/2007grants.asp.

11 Donald G. McNeil Jr., "Gates Foundation's Influence Criticized," Donald G. McNeil Jr., "Gates Foundation's Influence Criticized," New York Times New York Times, February 16, 2008.

12 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, "All Students Ready for College, Career and Life: Reflections on the Foundation's Education Investments, 2000- 2008," September 2008, 3-4, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, "All Students Ready for College, Career and Life: Reflections on the Foundation's Education Investments, 2000- 2008," September 2008, 3-4, www.gatesfoundation.org/learning/Doc.u.ments/reflections-foundations-education-investments.pdf.

13 Bill Gates, Prepared Remarks, National Governors a.s.sociation/Achieve Summit, February 26, 2005, Bill Gates, Prepared Remarks, National Governors a.s.sociation/Achieve Summit, February 26, 2005, www.nga.org/Files/pdf/es05gates.pdf. See also TED, "Bill Gates on Mosquitos, Malaria and Education," www.ted.com/talks/bill_gates_unplugged.html.

14 American Inst.i.tutes for Research, American Inst.i.tutes for Research, Executive Summary: Evaluation of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's High School Grants, 2001-2004 Executive Summary: Evaluation of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's High School Grants, 2001-2004 (Was.h.i.+ngton, D.C.: AIR, 2005), 8; AIR, (Was.h.i.+ngton, D.C.: AIR, 2005), 8; AIR, Rigor, Relevance, and Results: The Quality of Teacher a.s.signments and Student Work in New and Conventional High Schools; Evaluation of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's High School Grants Rigor, Relevance, and Results: The Quality of Teacher a.s.signments and Student Work in New and Conventional High Schools; Evaluation of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's High School Grants (Was.h.i.+ngton, D.C.: American Inst.i.tutes for Research, 2005), 43, 56; Erik W. Robelen, "Gates High Schools Get Mixed Review in Study," (Was.h.i.+ngton, D.C.: American Inst.i.tutes for Research, 2005), 43, 56; Erik W. Robelen, "Gates High Schools Get Mixed Review in Study," Education Week Education Week, November 16, 2005.

15 Allison Sherry, "Manual's Slow Death," Allison Sherry, "Manual's Slow Death," Denver Post Denver Post, May 7, 2006; Catherine Gewertz, "Failed Breakup of H.S. in Denver Offering Lessons," Education Week Education Week, March 15, 2006; Colorado Children's Campaign, "Breaking Up is Hard to Do: Lessons Learned from the Experiences of Manual High School," 2005, www.coloradokids.org/includes/downloads/ngupishardtodo.pdf; Jay Greene and William C. Symonds, "Bill Gates Gets Schooled," BusinessWeek BusinessWeek , June 26, 2006. , June 26, 2006.

16 Gary Lichtenstein, "What Went Wrong at Manual High?" Gary Lichtenstein, "What Went Wrong at Manual High?" Education Week Education Week, May 17, 2006.

17 Bob Geballe, "Bill Gates' Guinea Pigs," Bob Geballe, "Bill Gates' Guinea Pigs," Seattle Weekly Seattle Weekly, July 20, 2005.

18 Geballe, "Bill Gates' Guinea Pigs"; Mountlake Terrace High School, "Mountlake Terrace High School Profile 2008-2009," Geballe, "Bill Gates' Guinea Pigs"; Mountlake Terrace High School, "Mountlake Terrace High School Profile 2008-2009," www.edmonds.wednet.edu/MTHS/Profile_0809.pdf.

19 Valerie E. Lee and Julia B. Smith, "High School Size: Which Works Best and For Whom?" Valerie E. Lee and Julia B. Smith, "High School Size: Which Works Best and For Whom?" Educational Evaluation and Policy a.n.a.lysis Educational Evaluation and Policy a.n.a.lysis 19, no. 3 (1997) 205-227. 19, no. 3 (1997) 205-227.

20 Linda Shaw, "Foundation's Small-Schools Experiment Has Yet to Yield Big Results," Linda Shaw, "Foundation's Small-Schools Experiment Has Yet to Yield Big Results," Seattle Times Seattle Times, November 5, 2006.

21 Valerie E. Lee and Douglas D. Ready, Valerie E. Lee and Douglas D. Ready, Schools Within Schools: Possibilities and Pitfalls of High School Reform Schools Within Schools: Possibilities and Pitfalls of High School Reform (New York: Teachers College Press, 2007), 153-156. (New York: Teachers College Press, 2007), 153-156.

22 Kate N. Grossman, "Small Schools Gain, but Test Scores Don't Show It," Kate N. Grossman, "Small Schools Gain, but Test Scores Don't Show It," Chicago Sun-Times Chicago Sun-Times, August 3, 2006; Joseph E. Kahne et al., Small Schools on a Larger Scale: The First Three Years of the Chicago High School Redesign Initiative Small Schools on a Larger Scale: The First Three Years of the Chicago High School Redesign Initiative (Chicago: Consortium on Chicago School Research, University of Chicago, 2006); Sarah Karp, "Chicago High School Test Scores Stall, Including Those at Transformation Schools," (Chicago: Consortium on Chicago School Research, University of Chicago, 2006); Sarah Karp, "Chicago High School Test Scores Stall, Including Those at Transformation Schools," Catalyst Chicago Catalyst Chicago, September 15, 2009, www.catalyst-chicago.org/notebook/index.php/entry/379. For a scathing critique of the corporate takeover of the small school movement, see Michael Klonsky and Susan Klonsky, Small Schools: Public School Reform Meets the Owners.h.i.+p Society Small Schools: Public School Reform Meets the Owners.h.i.+p Society (New York: Routledge, 2008). (New York: Routledge, 2008).

23 Greene and Symonds, "Bill Gates Gets Schooled"; New Visions for Public Schools, "New Century High Schools: Evidence of Progress," Greene and Symonds, "Bill Gates Gets Schooled"; New Visions for Public Schools, "New Century High Schools: Evidence of Progress," www.newvisions.org/schools/nchs/evidence.asp.

24 Jennifer L. Jennings and Aaron Pallas, "Who Attends New York City's New Small Schools?" paper, Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research a.s.sociation, San Diego, California, April 2009. Chicago's Renaissance 2010 plan closed low-performing high schools and replaced them with new ones, but only 2 percent of the students who had been enrolled in the low-performing schools enrolled in the new ones. See Sarah Karp and John Myers, "Duncan's Track Record," Jennifer L. Jennings and Aaron Pallas, "Who Attends New York City's New Small Schools?" paper, Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research a.s.sociation, San Diego, California, April 2009. Chicago's Renaissance 2010 plan closed low-performing high schools and replaced them with new ones, but only 2 percent of the students who had been enrolled in the low-performing schools enrolled in the new ones. See Sarah Karp and John Myers, "Duncan's Track Record," Catalyst Chicago Catalyst Chicago, December 15, 2008; see also Marisa de la Torre and Julia Gwynne, When Schools Close: Effects on Displaced Students in Chicago Public Schools When Schools Close: Effects on Displaced Students in Chicago Public Schools (Chicago: Consortium on Chicago School Research, University of Chicago, 2009). (Chicago: Consortium on Chicago School Research, University of Chicago, 2009).

25 Clara Hemphill et al., Clara Hemphill et al., The New Marketplace: How Small-School Reforms and School Choice Have Reshaped New York City's High Schools The New Marketplace: How Small-School Reforms and School Choice Have Reshaped New York City's High Schools (New York: Center for New York City Affairs, The New School, 2009). (New York: Center for New York City Affairs, The New School, 2009).

26 Debra Viadero, "Foundation s.h.i.+fts Tack on Studies: Scholars Say Gates Risks Losing Valuable Findings," Debra Viadero, "Foundation s.h.i.+fts Tack on Studies: Scholars Say Gates Risks Losing Valuable Findings," Education Week Education Week, October 25, 2006.

27 Erik W. Robelen, "Gates Learns to Think Big," Erik W. Robelen, "Gates Learns to Think Big," Education Week Education Week, October 11, 2006. I was a trustee of the Thomas B. Fordham Foundation and Thomas B. Fordham Inst.i.tute for many years (I resigned in April 2009); I opposed the foundation's decision to accept Gates's funding for its programs, not because of any doubts about the Gates Foundation, but because I wanted Fordham to remain independent and free to be a critic.

28 Ibid. Ibid.

29 Ibid. Ibid.

30 Elizabeth Green, "Gates Foundation Will Steer Its Education Giving in a New Direction, But How Much Impact Will the Billions Have?" Elizabeth Green, "Gates Foundation Will Steer Its Education Giving in a New Direction, But How Much Impact Will the Billions Have?" GothamSchools GothamSchools, November 12, 2008, http://gothamschools.org/2008/11/12/gates-foundation-will-steer-its-education-giving-in-a-new-direction-but-how-much-impact-will-the-billions-have/; AIR, Evaluation of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's High School Grants Initiative: 2001-2005 Final Report Evaluation of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's High School Grants Initiative: 2001-2005 Final Report (Was.h.i.+ngton, D.C., AIR: 2006), 9; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, "All Students Ready for College, Career and Life." (Was.h.i.+ngton, D.C., AIR: 2006), 9; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, "All Students Ready for College, Career and Life."

31 Bill Gates, "School Reform That Works," Bill Gates, "School Reform That Works," Was.h.i.+ngton Post Was.h.i.+ngton Post, January 28, 2009.

32 Philissa Cramer, "Eli Broad Describes Close Ties to Klein, Weingarten, Duncan," Philissa Cramer, "Eli Broad Describes Close Ties to Klein, Weingarten, Duncan," GothamSchools GothamSchools, March 11, 2009, http://gothamschools. org/2009/03/11/eli-broad-describes-close-ties-to-klein-weingarten-duncan/.

33 Abby Goodnough, "Klein is Said to Be Planning a Strategic Map for Change," Abby Goodnough, "Klein is Said to Be Planning a Strategic Map for Change," New York Times New York Times, October 3, 2002.

34 Jeanne Allen, foreword to Jeanne Allen, foreword to National Model or Temporary Opportunity? The Oakland Education Reform Story, National Model or Temporary Opportunity? The Oakland Education Reform Story, by Joe Williams (Was.h.i.+ngton, D.C.: Center for Education Reform, 2007). by Joe Williams (Was.h.i.+ngton, D.C.: Center for Education Reform, 2007).

35 Williams, Williams, National Model or Temporary Opportunity? National Model or Temporary Opportunity?, 3-4.

36 Ibid., 6-7. Ibid., 6-7.

37 Katy Murphy, "Report: Oakland Charters Outs.h.i.+ne District Schools," Education Report blog, February 10, 2009, Katy Murphy, "Report: Oakland Charters Outs.h.i.+ne District Schools," Education Report blog, February 10, 2009, www.ibabuzz.com/education/2009/02/10/report-charter-schools-outs.h.i.+ne-district-schools-in-oakland/; California Charter Schools a.s.sociation, A Longitudinal a.n.a.lysis of Charter School Performance in Oakland Unified School District: A District and Neighborhood Matched Comparison a.n.a.lysis A Longitudinal a.n.a.lysis of Charter School Performance in Oakland Unified School District: A District and Neighborhood Matched Comparison a.n.a.lysis, January 2009, 9, 28, www.ibabuzz.com/education/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/charter-report-0209.pdf; Oakland Unified School District, "School Portfolio Management: Comparing Oakland Charter Schools to OUSD District Schools," August 17, 2007, 28, www.weebly.com/uploads/4/1/6/1/41611/spm_charter_schools_08.17.07_v2.pdf; Murphy, "Report: Oakland Charters Outs.h.i.+ne District Schools," comment #6.

38 Dan Katzir, "Ten Years of K-12 Lessons Learned and Reform Opportunities in 2009," remarks as prepared for delivery, Democrats for Education Reform event, Denver, Colorado, March 11, 2009. Dan Katzir, "Ten Years of K-12 Lessons Learned and Reform Opportunities in 2009," remarks as prepared for delivery, Democrats for Education Reform event, Denver, Colorado, March 11, 2009.

39 Grants by the Eli and Edythe L. Broad Foundation are listed on the foundation's Form 990, which is filed annually with the Internal Revenue Service. These forms can be found on Grants by the Eli and Edythe L. Broad Foundation are listed on the foundation's Form 990, which is filed annually with the Internal Revenue Service. These forms can be found on GuideStar.org. When I had trouble locating the 990 for 2007, the latest available, the foundation generously sent it to me. The Eduwonkette blog at Education Week Education Week posted the 990 forms for several foundations, including the Broad Foundation, from 2003 to 2005, at posted the 990 forms for several foundations, including the Broad Foundation, from 2003 to 2005, at http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/eduwonkette/2008/02/funding_frenzy_1.html.

40 Ibid. Ibid.

41 David M. Herszenhorn, "Billionaires Start $60 Million Schools Effort," David M. Herszenhorn, "Billionaires Start $60 Million Schools Effort," New York Times New York Times, April 25, 2007.

42 NewSchools Venture Fund, NewSchools Venture Fund, http://newschools.org/.

43 Michael Petrilli, "The Race to the Top: The Carrot That Feels Like a Stick," Flypaper blog, July 23, 2009, Michael Petrilli, "The Race to the Top: The Carrot That Feels Like a Stick," Flypaper blog, July 23, 2009, www.edexcellence.net/flypaper/index.php/2009/07/the-race-to-the-top-the-carrot-that-feels-like-a-stick/.

44 Fred Hiatt, "How Bill Gates Would Repair Our Schools," Fred Hiatt, "How Bill Gates Would Repair Our Schools," Was.h.i.+ngton Post Was.h.i.+ngton Post, March 30, 2009; Gates, Speech to the National Conference of State Legislatures, July 21, 2009, www.gatesfoundation.org/speeches-commentary/Pages/bill-gates-2009-conference-state-legislatures.aspx.

45 Andrew J. Rotherham and Richard Whitmire, "Close Underperforming Charter Schools, Reward Those That Work," Andrew J. Rotherham and Richard Whitmire, "Close Underperforming Charter Schools, Reward Those That Work," U.S. News & World Report U.S. News & World Report, June 17, 2009.

CHAPTER ELEVEN.

1 Ina V. S. Mullis and Michael O. Martin, "TIMSS in Perspective: Lessons Learned from IEA's Four Decades of International Mathematics a.s.sessments," in Ina V. S. Mullis and Michael O. Martin, "TIMSS in Perspective: Lessons Learned from IEA's Four Decades of International Mathematics a.s.sessments," in Lessons Learned: What International a.s.sessments Tell Us About Math Achievement Lessons Learned: What International a.s.sessments Tell Us About Math Achievement, ed. Tom Loveless (Was.h.i.+ngton, D.C.: Brookings Inst.i.tution Press, 2007), 35.

2 Deborah Meier, "'Data Informed,' not 'Data Driven,'" Bridging Differences blog, March 5, 2009, Deborah Meier, "'Data Informed,' not 'Data Driven,'" Bridging Differences blog, March 5, 2009, http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/Bridging-Differences/.

3 Common Core, Common Core, Why We're Behind: What Top Nations Teach Their Students But We Don't Why We're Behind: What Top Nations Teach Their Students But We Don't (Was.h.i.+ngton, D.C.: Common Core, 2009), (Was.h.i.+ngton, D.C.: Common Core, 2009), www.commoncore.org/_docs/CCreport_whybehind.pdf. Tom Loveless of the Brookings Inst.i.tution tells me that many low-performing nations also have a balanced curriculum. If so, it is unclear why the United States should be one of the few nations that focuses only on reading and mathematics, showing no concern for other important studies.

4 Jeanne S. Chall, Jeanne S. Chall, Learning to Read: The Great Debate Learning to Read: The Great Debate (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967); Chall, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967); Chall, The Academic Achievement Challenge: What Really Works in the Cla.s.sroom? The Academic Achievement Challenge: What Really Works in the Cla.s.sroom? (New York: Guilford Press, 2000). For a concise description of the parts of speech and their relations.h.i.+p to writing, see University of Ottawa, "Parts of Speech," (New York: Guilford Press, 2000). For a concise description of the parts of speech and their relations.h.i.+p to writing, see University of Ottawa, "Parts of Speech," www.arts.uottawa.ca/writcent/hypergrammar/partsp.html.

5 Carol Jago, Carol Jago, With Rigor for All: Teaching the Cla.s.sics to Contemporary Students With Rigor for All: Teaching the Cla.s.sics to Contemporary Students (Portland, MN: Calendar Islands Publishers, 2000); in (Portland, MN: Calendar Islands Publishers, 2000); in The Language Police The Language Police, I compiled (with the help of Rodney Atkinson, an expert elementary school teacher and specialist in children's literature) a list of cla.s.sics for children. Diane Ravitch, The Language Police: How Pressure Groups Restrict What Students Learn The Language Police: How Pressure Groups Restrict What Students Learn (New York: Knopf, 2003), 203-234. (New York: Knopf, 2003), 203-234.

6 Ravitch, Ravitch, The Language Police The Language Police, 162.

7 National Center for Education Statistics, National Center for Education Statistics, The Nation's Report Card: U.S. History 2006 The Nation's Report Card: U.S. History 2006 (Was.h.i.+ngton, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 2007). (Was.h.i.+ngton, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 2007).

8 See E. D. Hirsch Jr., See E. D. Hirsch Jr., The Making of Americans: Democracy and Our Schools The Making of Americans: Democracy and Our Schools (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2009); Core Knowledge Foundation, (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2009); Core Knowledge Foundation, Core Knowledge Sequence: Content Guidelines for Grades K-8 Core Knowledge Sequence: Content Guidelines for Grades K-8 (Charlottesville, VA: Core Knowledge Foundation, 1999), 1-4. (Charlottesville, VA: Core Knowledge Foundation, 1999), 1-4.

9 To understand how textbooks are shaped by pressure groups in these two key states, see Ravitch, To understand how textbooks are shaped by pressure groups in these two key states, see Ravitch, The Language Police The Language Police.

10 Ma.s.sachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, "TIMSS Results Place Ma.s.sachusetts Among World Leaders in Math and Science," press release, December 9, 2008, Ma.s.sachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, "TIMSS Results Place Ma.s.sachusetts Among World Leaders in Math and Science," press release, December 9, 2008, www.doe.ma.s.s.edu/news/news.asp?id=4457.

11 William H. Schmidt, statement for U.S. TIMSS, Michigan State University, College of Education, December 2008, William H. Schmidt, statement for U.S. TIMSS, Michigan State University, College of Education, December 2008, http://ustimss.msu.edu/mnpresre.html.

12 Betty Hart and Todd R. Risley, "The Early Catastrophe: The 30 Million Word Gap by Age 3," Betty Hart and Todd R. Risley, "The Early Catastrophe: The 30 Million Word Gap by Age 3," American Educator American Educator, Spring 2003. See also Hart and Risley, Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children (Baltimore: Brookes, 1995). (Baltimore: Brookes, 1995).

The Death and Life of the great American School System Part 9

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The Death and Life of the great American School System Part 9 summary

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