Christianity - The First Three Thousand Years Part 37

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General Reading Quite magnificent in its originality and powers of synthesis is the work of the doyen of the field, P. Brown, The Rise of Western Christendom: Triumph and Diversity The Rise of Western Christendom: Triumph and Diversity AD AD 200-1000 200-1000 (Oxford, 1997). From a master of a previous generation comes a fine introduction, R. W. Southern, (Oxford, 1997). From a master of a previous generation comes a fine introduction, R. W. Southern, Western Society and the Church in the Middle Ages Western Society and the Church in the Middle Ages (London, 1970). An introduction which usefully draws on social and economic history, and which takes no prisoners, is R. Collins, (London, 1970). An introduction which usefully draws on social and economic history, and which takes no prisoners, is R. Collins, Early Medieval Europe 300-1000 Early Medieval Europe 300-1000 (Houndmills, 1991). (Houndmills, 1991).

9: The Making of Latin Christianity (300- 500) For the beginning of the period, see the reading for Chapter 6, but to those works should be added the particular focus on the city of Rome in J. R. Curran, Pagan City and Christian Capital: Rome in the Fourth Century Pagan City and Christian Capital: Rome in the Fourth Century (Oxford, 2000), also against the wider background presented with concise brilliance in P. Brown, (Oxford, 2000), also against the wider background presented with concise brilliance in P. Brown, The Cult of the Saints: Its Rise and Function in Latin Christianity The Cult of the Saints: Its Rise and Function in Latin Christianity (London, 1981). Much profit and entertainment can be derived from the essayists of A. Momigliano (ed.), (London, 1981). Much profit and entertainment can be derived from the essayists of A. Momigliano (ed.), The Conflict between Paganism and Christianity in the Fourth Century: Essays The Conflict between Paganism and Christianity in the Fourth Century: Essays (Oxford, 1963). Augustine is perhaps the only Father of the Church whom non-Christians can read for pleasure, at least in two key works, H. Bettenson and D. Knowles (eds.), (Oxford, 1963). Augustine is perhaps the only Father of the Church whom non-Christians can read for pleasure, at least in two key works, H. Bettenson and D. Knowles (eds.), Augustine: Concerning the City of G.o.d against the Pagans Augustine: Concerning the City of G.o.d against the Pagans (London, 1967), and R. S. Pine-Coffin (ed.), (London, 1967), and R. S. Pine-Coffin (ed.), Saint Augustine: Confessions Saint Augustine: Confessions (London, 1961). Two splendid lives of this most central of Western theologians are G. Bonner, (London, 1961). Two splendid lives of this most central of Western theologians are G. Bonner, Saint Augustine of Hippo: Life and Controversies Saint Augustine of Hippo: Life and Controversies (2nd edn, Norwich, 1963) and P. Brown, (2nd edn, Norwich, 1963) and P. Brown, Augustine of Hippo: A Biography Augustine of Hippo: A Biography (London, 1969). An absorbing effort to squeeze as much as possible out of the limited evidence, although there have been archaeological discoveries since, is C. Thomas, (London, 1969). An absorbing effort to squeeze as much as possible out of the limited evidence, although there have been archaeological discoveries since, is C. Thomas, Christianity in Roman Britain to Christianity in Roman Britain to AD AD 500 500 (London, 1981). (London, 1981).

10: Latin Christendom: New Frontiers (500- 1000) The period is well served for general introductions, such as G. R. Evans, The Church in the Early Middle Ages The Church in the Early Middle Ages (London, 2007), J. Herrin, (London, 2007), J. Herrin, The Formation of Christendom The Formation of Christendom (London, 1989), F. D. Logan, (London, 1989), F. D. Logan, A History of the Church in the Middle Ages A History of the Church in the Middle Ages (London, 2002), T. F. X. n.o.ble and J. M. H. Smith (eds.), (London, 2002), T. F. X. n.o.ble and J. M. H. Smith (eds.), The Cambridge History of Christianity 4: Early Medieval Christianities, c. 600-c. 1100 The Cambridge History of Christianity 4: Early Medieval Christianities, c. 600-c. 1100 (Cambridge, 2008), and C. Wickham, (Cambridge, 2008), and C. Wickham, The Inheritance of Rome: A History of Europe from 400 to 1000 The Inheritance of Rome: A History of Europe from 400 to 1000 (London and New York, 2009) - the last providing a wide sweep of perspectives including emphasis on the social and economic background. An eloquent and absorbing study, weighted before 1000, is R. Fletcher, (London and New York, 2009) - the last providing a wide sweep of perspectives including emphasis on the social and economic background. An eloquent and absorbing study, weighted before 1000, is R. Fletcher, The Conversion of Europe: From Paganism to Christianity 371-1386 The Conversion of Europe: From Paganism to Christianity 371-1386 AD (London, 1997). On a key figure, an excellent starter is R. A. Markus, AD (London, 1997). On a key figure, an excellent starter is R. A. Markus, Gregory the Great and His World Gregory the Great and His World (Cambridge, 1997), and there are fine essays on another key personality in J. Story (ed.), (Cambridge, 1997), and there are fine essays on another key personality in J. Story (ed.), Charlemagne: Empire and Society Charlemagne: Empire and Society (Manchester, 2005). J. M. Wallace-Hadrill, (Manchester, 2005). J. M. Wallace-Hadrill, The Frankish Church The Frankish Church (Oxford, 1983), is a substantial study of the section of the Western Church which transformed religious patterns on a much wider scale. H. Mayr-Harting, (Oxford, 1983), is a substantial study of the section of the Western Church which transformed religious patterns on a much wider scale. H. Mayr-Harting, The Coming of Christianity to Anglo-Saxon England The Coming of Christianity to Anglo-Saxon England (3rd edn, London, 1991) delightfully introduces the subject, in the nature of things owing much to an equally delightful work by an only slightly more venerable historian, L. Sherley-Price and R. E. Latham (eds.), (3rd edn, London, 1991) delightfully introduces the subject, in the nature of things owing much to an equally delightful work by an only slightly more venerable historian, L. Sherley-Price and R. E. Latham (eds.), Bede: A History of the English Church and People Bede: A History of the English Church and People (rev. edn, London, 1968). More cla.s.sic hagiographies of the period, some by Bede himself, are to be encountered in J. F. Webb (tr.) and D. H. Farmer (ed.), (rev. edn, London, 1968). More cla.s.sic hagiographies of the period, some by Bede himself, are to be encountered in J. F. Webb (tr.) and D. H. Farmer (ed.), The Age of Bede The Age of Bede (London, 1983). (London, 1983).

11: The West: Universal Emperor or Universal Pope? (900- 1200) After the general introductions to the whole period listed above, a refres.h.i.+ngly iconoclastic perspective is R. I. Moore, The Formation of a Persecuting Society: Power and Deviance in Western Europe, 950-1250 The Formation of a Persecuting Society: Power and Deviance in Western Europe, 950-1250 (Oxford, 1987), expanded into a more general survey in R. I. Moore, (Oxford, 1987), expanded into a more general survey in R. I. Moore, The First European Revolution, c. 970-1215 The First European Revolution, c. 970-1215 (Oxford, 2000). K. G. Cus.h.i.+ng, (Oxford, 2000). K. G. Cus.h.i.+ng, Reform and the Papacy in the Eleventh Century: Spirituality and Social Change Reform and the Papacy in the Eleventh Century: Spirituality and Social Change (Manchester and New York, 2005), presents a clear overview of the Gregorian Revolution, and is usefully complemented chronologically by the equally workmanlike R. N. Swanson, (Manchester and New York, 2005), presents a clear overview of the Gregorian Revolution, and is usefully complemented chronologically by the equally workmanlike R. N. Swanson, The Twelfth-century Renaissance The Twelfth-century Renaissance (Manchester, 1999). J. Harvey, (Manchester, 1999). J. Harvey, The Gothic World 1100-1600: A Survey of Architecture and Art The Gothic World 1100-1600: A Survey of Architecture and Art (London, 1950), is a good place to start exploring the dominant medieval style, while its Romanesque predecessor is absorbingly catalogued in the photography of a stupendous French series of publications begun in 1955 by Benedictine monks, (London, 1950), is a good place to start exploring the dominant medieval style, while its Romanesque predecessor is absorbingly catalogued in the photography of a stupendous French series of publications begun in 1955 by Benedictine monks, La nuit des temps La nuit des temps (La Pierre-qui-Vire, 1955- ), now running to more than ninety volumes. G. Duby, (La Pierre-qui-Vire, 1955- ), now running to more than ninety volumes. G. Duby, The Age of the Cathedrals: Art and Society 980-1420 The Age of the Cathedrals: Art and Society 980-1420 (London, 1981), originally published as (London, 1981), originally published as Le temps des cathedrales: l'art et la societe 980-1420 Le temps des cathedrales: l'art et la societe 980-1420 (Paris, 1976), is a wonderful exposition of the importance of cathedrals in the society of the High Middle Ages, with its focus on the eleventh and twelfth century; it is a pity that the English translation is so wooden. Unequivocally a pleasure to read in its gentlemanly New England lyricism is H. Adams, (Paris, 1976), is a wonderful exposition of the importance of cathedrals in the society of the High Middle Ages, with its focus on the eleventh and twelfth century; it is a pity that the English translation is so wooden. Unequivocally a pleasure to read in its gentlemanly New England lyricism is H. Adams, Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres (Boston, MA, 1904). On the Crusading phenomenon, S. Runciman, (Boston, MA, 1904). On the Crusading phenomenon, S. Runciman, A History of the Crusades A History of the Crusades (3 vols., Cambridge, 1951-4) is cla.s.sic. C. Tyerman, (3 vols., Cambridge, 1951-4) is cla.s.sic. C. Tyerman, G.o.d's War: A New History of the Crusades G.o.d's War: A New History of the Crusades (London, 2006), is a more recent summary of a lifetime's thought, complemented by the various perspectives provided by a fine crew of essayists in S. J. Ridyard (ed.), (London, 2006), is a more recent summary of a lifetime's thought, complemented by the various perspectives provided by a fine crew of essayists in S. J. Ridyard (ed.), The Medieval Crusade The Medieval Crusade (Woodbridge and Rochester, NY, 2004). A beautifully argued and ill.u.s.trated survey with a wider chronological focus is particularly relevant for the Crusading period: C. Morris, (Woodbridge and Rochester, NY, 2004). A beautifully argued and ill.u.s.trated survey with a wider chronological focus is particularly relevant for the Crusading period: C. Morris, The Sepulchre of Christ and the Medieval West from the Beginning to 1600 The Sepulchre of Christ and the Medieval West from the Beginning to 1600 (Oxford, 2005), while H. Houben, (Oxford, 2005), while H. Houben, Roger II of Sicily: A Ruler between East and West Roger II of Sicily: A Ruler between East and West (Cambridge, 2002), focuses on one of the most fascinating and unusual Western Christians of his age. (Cambridge, 2002), focuses on one of the most fascinating and unusual Western Christians of his age.

12: A Church for All People? (1100- 1300) Much profit is provided by the essayists in M. Rubin (ed.), The Cambridge History of Christianity 4: Christianity in Western Europe, c. 1100-c. 1500 The Cambridge History of Christianity 4: Christianity in Western Europe, c. 1100-c. 1500 (Cambridge, 2009). Richly enjoyable and displaying an exceptional sensitivity to visual evidence beyond its supposed boundaries is R. Marks, (Cambridge, 2009). Richly enjoyable and displaying an exceptional sensitivity to visual evidence beyond its supposed boundaries is R. Marks, Image and Devotion in Late Medieval England Image and Devotion in Late Medieval England (Stroud, 2004). Few other countries have had the luck to have been treated to such a study as D. Knowles, (Stroud, 2004). Few other countries have had the luck to have been treated to such a study as D. Knowles, The Religious Orders in England The Religious Orders in England (3 vols., Cambridge, 1948-59). M. Rubin, (3 vols., Cambridge, 1948-59). M. Rubin, Corpus Christi: The Eucharist in Late Medieval Culture Corpus Christi: The Eucharist in Late Medieval Culture (Cambridge, 1991), says a great deal about the period by concentrating on one of its chief cultural products, while excellent portraits of three sharply contrasting architects of their age are to be gained from M. Reeves, (Cambridge, 1991), says a great deal about the period by concentrating on one of its chief cultural products, while excellent portraits of three sharply contrasting architects of their age are to be gained from M. Reeves, Joachim of Fiore and the Prophetic Future: A Medieval Study in Historical Thinking Joachim of Fiore and the Prophetic Future: A Medieval Study in Historical Thinking (rev. edn, Stroud, 1999), J. C.Moore (ed.), (rev. edn, Stroud, 1999), J. C.Moore (ed.), Pope Innocent III and His World Pope Innocent III and His World (Aldershot, 1999), and K. B. McFarlane, (Aldershot, 1999), and K. B. McFarlane, John Wycliffe and the Beginnings of English Non-conformity John Wycliffe and the Beginnings of English Non-conformity (London, 1952) - the last, like Jones's study of Constantine above, a superb example of how to present history to the intelligent but uninformed. N. Cohn, (London, 1952) - the last, like Jones's study of Constantine above, a superb example of how to present history to the intelligent but uninformed. N. Cohn, The Pursuit of the Millennium The Pursuit of the Millennium (3rd rev. edn, London, 1969) still stirs the imagination, even if some of its perspectives may now seem over-delineated. (3rd rev. edn, London, 1969) still stirs the imagination, even if some of its perspectives may now seem over-delineated.



PART V: ORTHODOXY: THE IMPERIAL FAITH (451-1800).

General Reading Byzantium and Orthodoxy in general have some beguiling guides. J. Herrin, Byzantium: The Surprising Life of a Medieval Empire Byzantium: The Surprising Life of a Medieval Empire (London, 2007), is an arresting place to begin, arranged topically as well as chronologically, and another splendid introduction is A. Cameron, (London, 2007), is an arresting place to begin, arranged topically as well as chronologically, and another splendid introduction is A. Cameron, The Byzantines The Byzantines (Oxford, 2006). A fine gateway to Orthodoxy from a magisterial historian also an Orthodox bishop is K. Ware, (Oxford, 2006). A fine gateway to Orthodoxy from a magisterial historian also an Orthodox bishop is K. Ware, The Orthodox Church The Orthodox Church (London, 1994), and the ground is covered comprehensively albeit with some minor slips in J. Binns, (London, 1994), and the ground is covered comprehensively albeit with some minor slips in J. Binns, An Introduction to the Christian Orthodox Churches An Introduction to the Christian Orthodox Churches (Cambridge, 2002). J. M. Hussey, (Cambridge, 2002). J. M. Hussey, The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire (Oxford, 1986), is stodgy, but is not to be neglected. Teams of experts crowd M. Angold (ed.), (Oxford, 1986), is stodgy, but is not to be neglected. Teams of experts crowd M. Angold (ed.), The Cambridge History of Christianity 5: Eastern Christianity The Cambridge History of Christianity 5: Eastern Christianity (Cambridge, 2006) and C. Mango (ed.), (Cambridge, 2006) and C. Mango (ed.), The Oxford History of Byzantium The Oxford History of Byzantium (Oxford, 2002). A sparkling set of essayists is marshalled in A. Louth and A. Casiday (eds.), (Oxford, 2002). A sparkling set of essayists is marshalled in A. Louth and A. Casiday (eds.), Byzantine Orthodoxies Byzantine Orthodoxies (Aldershot, 2006), and the culminating work of a great career in historical exposition and Christian ec.u.menical endeavour is H. Chadwick, (Aldershot, 2006), and the culminating work of a great career in historical exposition and Christian ec.u.menical endeavour is H. Chadwick, East and West: The Making of a Rift in the Church. From Apostolic Times until the Council of Florence East and West: The Making of a Rift in the Church. From Apostolic Times until the Council of Florence (Oxford, 2003). A. Ivanov, (Oxford, 2003). A. Ivanov, Holy Fools in Byzantium and Beyond Holy Fools in Byzantium and Beyond (Oxford, 2006), is a delightful and learned survey of a theme which may disconcert Westerners meeting the Orthodox tradition. (Oxford, 2006), is a delightful and learned survey of a theme which may disconcert Westerners meeting the Orthodox tradition.

13: Faith in a New Rome (451- 900) A fascinating exposition of a hitherto-neglected world catastrophe is L. K. Little (ed.), Plague and the End of Antiquity: The Pandemic of 541-750 Plague and the End of Antiquity: The Pandemic of 541-750 (Cambridge, 2007). J. Moorhead, (Cambridge, 2007). J. Moorhead, Justinian Justinian (London, 1994), is the best introduction to this architect of Byzantine ident.i.ty, who should also be entertainingly encountered, along with his formidable spouse, in G. A. Williamson (tr.), (London, 1994), is the best introduction to this architect of Byzantine ident.i.ty, who should also be entertainingly encountered, along with his formidable spouse, in G. A. Williamson (tr.), Procopius: The Secret History Procopius: The Secret History (London, 1966). The essayists of J. Fontaine and J. N. Hillgarth (eds.), (London, 1966). The essayists of J. Fontaine and J. N. Hillgarth (eds.), The Seventh Century: Change and Continuity The Seventh Century: Change and Continuity (London, 1992), illuminate a turning point in Byzantine history, which is explored in further detail by L. Brubaker and J. Haldon (eds.), (London, 1992), illuminate a turning point in Byzantine history, which is explored in further detail by L. Brubaker and J. Haldon (eds.), Byzantium in the Iconoclast Era (c. 680-850). The Sources: An Annotated Survey Byzantium in the Iconoclast Era (c. 680-850). The Sources: An Annotated Survey (Aldershot, 2001). (Aldershot, 2001).

14: Orthodoxy: More Than an Empire (900- 1700) In addition to the general sources, M. Angold, The Fourth Crusade: Event and Context The Fourth Crusade: Event and Context (Harlow, 2003), provides a good account of this wretched and decisive episode, while the final disaster inspires a lively presentation in R. Crowley, (Harlow, 2003), provides a good account of this wretched and decisive episode, while the final disaster inspires a lively presentation in R. Crowley, Constantinople: The Last Great Siege, 1453 Constantinople: The Last Great Siege, 1453 (London, 2005). A more upbeat story of eventual renewal, with beautiful ill.u.s.trations, is G. Speake, (London, 2005). A more upbeat story of eventual renewal, with beautiful ill.u.s.trations, is G. Speake, Mount Athos: Renewal in Paradise Mount Athos: Renewal in Paradise (New Haven and London, 2002). (New Haven and London, 2002).

15: Russia: The Third Rome (900- 1800) A good place to begin in the understanding of a culture very hard for Westerners properly to understand is a wise study by a great Orthodox exile, of much more general interest than its t.i.tle implies, J. Meyendorff, Byzantium and the Rise of Russia: A Study of Byzantino-Russian relations in the 14th Century Byzantium and the Rise of Russia: A Study of Byzantino-Russian relations in the 14th Century (Cambridge, 1981). Extremely lively is T. Szamuely, (Cambridge, 1981). Extremely lively is T. Szamuely, The Russian Tradition The Russian Tradition (London, 1974). W. van den Bercken, (London, 1974). W. van den Bercken, Holy Russia and Christian Europe: East and West in the Religious Ideology of Russia Holy Russia and Christian Europe: East and West in the Religious Ideology of Russia (London, 1999), a translation of (London, 1999), a translation of De mythe van het Oosten. Oost en West in de religieuze ideeengeschiedenis van Rusland De mythe van het Oosten. Oost en West in de religieuze ideeengeschiedenis van Rusland (Zoetermeer, 1998), provides further general insight. G. Hosking, (Zoetermeer, 1998), provides further general insight. G. Hosking, Russia: People and Empire 1551-1917 Russia: People and Empire 1551-1917 (1997), is an excellent complement to the early focus of these works, and a highly engaging journey beyond high politics and elites is made in A. Sinyavsky, (1997), is an excellent complement to the early focus of these works, and a highly engaging journey beyond high politics and elites is made in A. Sinyavsky, Ivan the Fool. Russian Folk Belief: A Cultural History Ivan the Fool. Russian Folk Belief: A Cultural History (Moscow, 2007), a translation of this noted dissident novelist's original text. S. Plokhy, (Moscow, 2007), a translation of this noted dissident novelist's original text. S. Plokhy, The Cossacks and Religion in Early Modern Ukraine The Cossacks and Religion in Early Modern Ukraine (Oxford, 2002), helps to explain the tangled relations.h.i.+p of Russia and Ukraine, while a superb biography of a key figure is I. de Madariaga, (Oxford, 2002), helps to explain the tangled relations.h.i.+p of Russia and Ukraine, while a superb biography of a key figure is I. de Madariaga, Ivan the Terrible Ivan the Terrible (New Haven and London, 2005). (New Haven and London, 2005).

PART VI: WESTERN CHRISTIANITY DISMEMBERED (1300-1800).

General Reading A firework display of insights into the period is provided by J. Bossy, Christianity in the West 1400-1700 Christianity in the West 1400-1700 (Oxford, 1985). D. MacCulloch, (Oxford, 1985). D. MacCulloch, Reformation: Europe's House Divided 1490-1700 Reformation: Europe's House Divided 1490-1700 (London, 2003), provides an overview; E. Duffy, (London, 2003), provides an overview; E. Duffy, The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England, c. 1400-c. 1580 The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England, c. 1400-c. 1580 (New Haven and London, 1992), evokes with elegiac elegance the world which the Reformation destroyed and the way in which one kingdom destroyed it. (New Haven and London, 1992), evokes with elegiac elegance the world which the Reformation destroyed and the way in which one kingdom destroyed it.

16: Perspectives on the True Church (1300- 1517) The period is well introduced by N. P. Tanner, The Church in the Later Middle Ages The Church in the Later Middle Ages (London, 2008). A pa.s.sionate survey of one of its most important products, whose consequences remain still fully to be worked out, is F. Oakley, (London, 2008). A pa.s.sionate survey of one of its most important products, whose consequences remain still fully to be worked out, is F. Oakley, The Conciliarist Tradition: Const.i.tutionalism in the Catholic Church, 1300-1870 The Conciliarist Tradition: Const.i.tutionalism in the Catholic Church, 1300-1870 (Oxford, 2003). That giant among Dutch historians J. Huizinga produced a cla.s.sic introduction to (Oxford, 2003). That giant among Dutch historians J. Huizinga produced a cla.s.sic introduction to Erasmus of Rotterdam Erasmus of Rotterdam (London, 1952), a translation of the Dutch original of 1924; it can be triangulated with L.-E. Halkin, (London, 1952), a translation of the Dutch original of 1924; it can be triangulated with L.-E. Halkin, Erasmus: A Critical Biography Erasmus: A Critical Biography (Oxford, 1993), and a delightful and profound meditation by M. A. Screech, (Oxford, 1993), and a delightful and profound meditation by M. A. Screech, Laughter at the Foot of the Cross Laughter at the Foot of the Cross (London, 1997). (London, 1997).

17: A House Divided (1517- 1660) Varied voices of a galaxy of experts on the European Reformation are heard in A. Pettegree (ed.), The Reformation World The Reformation World (London, 2000), and R. Po-Chia Hsia (ed.), (London, 2000), and R. Po-Chia Hsia (ed.), The Cambridge History of Christianity 6: Reform and Expansion 1500-1660 The Cambridge History of Christianity 6: Reform and Expansion 1500-1660 (Cambridge, 2007). Textbook-style is B. k.u.min (ed.), (Cambridge, 2007). Textbook-style is B. k.u.min (ed.), The European World 1500-1800 The European World 1500-1800 (London, 2009), Part 3. A series of sure guides to the complex theological disputes of the period are furnished by D. Bagchi and D. Steinmetz (eds.), (London, 2009), Part 3. A series of sure guides to the complex theological disputes of the period are furnished by D. Bagchi and D. Steinmetz (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Reformation Theology The Cambridge Companion to Reformation Theology (Cambridge, 2004). Of the countless biographies of the Reformation's first great personality, a variety of introductory spotlights appear in D. K. McKim (ed.), (Cambridge, 2004). Of the countless biographies of the Reformation's first great personality, a variety of introductory spotlights appear in D. K. McKim (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Martin Luther The Cambridge Companion to Martin Luther (Cambridge, 2003). M. Marty, (Cambridge, 2003). M. Marty, Martin Luther Martin Luther (New York, 2004) is concise, and would be provocatively complemented by progressing to R. Marius, (New York, 2004) is concise, and would be provocatively complemented by progressing to R. Marius, Martin Luther: The Christian between G.o.d and Death Martin Luther: The Christian between G.o.d and Death (Cambridge, MA, and London, 1999). All these would be a painless prelude to M. Brecht, (Cambridge, MA, and London, 1999). All these would be a painless prelude to M. Brecht, Martin Luther Martin Luther (3 vols., London, 1985-93), translated from (3 vols., London, 1985-93), translated from Martin Luther Martin Luther (3 vols., Stuttgart, 1981-7), a work conceived on a grand scale from within the Lutheran tradition, and therefore inclined to give Luther multiple benefits of the doubt. The resulting Lutheranism in Germany should be sampled in the essays of the tragically short-lived R. W. Scribner, (3 vols., Stuttgart, 1981-7), a work conceived on a grand scale from within the Lutheran tradition, and therefore inclined to give Luther multiple benefits of the doubt. The resulting Lutheranism in Germany should be sampled in the essays of the tragically short-lived R. W. Scribner, Popular Culture and Popular Movements in Reformation Germany Popular Culture and Popular Movements in Reformation Germany (London, 1987). (London, 1987).

G. R. Potter (ed.), Huldrych Zwingli Huldrych Zwingli (London, 1978), is a fine biography of this unjustly neglected Reformer, and a much better-known Reformed Protestant of the next generation is to be enjoyably encountered in the work of a fellow-Frenchman with a fine sense of Calvin's cultural context, B. Cottret, (London, 1978), is a fine biography of this unjustly neglected Reformer, and a much better-known Reformed Protestant of the next generation is to be enjoyably encountered in the work of a fellow-Frenchman with a fine sense of Calvin's cultural context, B. Cottret, Calvin: A Biography Calvin: A Biography (Grand Rapids and Edinburgh, 2000), translated from (Grand Rapids and Edinburgh, 2000), translated from Calvin: biographie Calvin: biographie (Paris, 1995). The Reformed tradition of Protestantism which they shaped is now superbly introduced both by P. Benedict, (Paris, 1995). The Reformed tradition of Protestantism which they shaped is now superbly introduced both by P. Benedict, Christ's Churches Purely Reformed: A Social History of Calvinism Christ's Churches Purely Reformed: A Social History of Calvinism (New Haven and London, 2002) and G. Murdock, (New Haven and London, 2002) and G. Murdock, Beyond Calvin: The Intellectual, Political and Cultural World of Europe's Reformed Churches, c. 1540-1620 Beyond Calvin: The Intellectual, Political and Cultural World of Europe's Reformed Churches, c. 1540-1620 (Basingstoke, 2004). The crisis which was in great measure triggered by the Reformation is presented in P. H. Wilson, (Basingstoke, 2004). The crisis which was in great measure triggered by the Reformation is presented in P. H. Wilson, Europe's Tragedy: A History of the Thirty Years War Europe's Tragedy: A History of the Thirty Years War (London, 2009). (London, 2009).

One national Reformation which became a very individual branch of the Reformed family is introduced in D. MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer: A Life Thomas Cranmer: A Life (New Haven and London, 1996), D. MacCulloch, (New Haven and London, 1996), D. MacCulloch, The Later Reformation in England, 1547-1603 The Later Reformation in England, 1547-1603 (rev. edn, Basingstoke, 2001), C. Haigh, (rev. edn, Basingstoke, 2001), C. Haigh, English Reformations: Religion, Politics and Society under the Tudors English Reformations: Religion, Politics and Society under the Tudors (Oxford, 1993), and P. Marshall, (Oxford, 1993), and P. Marshall, Reformation England 1480-1642 Reformation England 1480-1642 (London, 2003). The contrasting Reformation which in the same islands became (London, 2003). The contrasting Reformation which in the same islands became plus Calviniste que Calvin plus Calviniste que Calvin is absorbingly described in all its vitality in M. Todd, is absorbingly described in all its vitality in M. Todd, The Culture of Protestantism in Early Modern Scotland The Culture of Protestantism in Early Modern Scotland (New Haven and London, 2002), while the Reformation which went wrong and the Counter-Reformation which supplanted it are sympathetically evoked in R. Gillespie, (New Haven and London, 2002), while the Reformation which went wrong and the Counter-Reformation which supplanted it are sympathetically evoked in R. Gillespie, Devoted People: Belief and Religion in Early Modern Ireland Devoted People: Belief and Religion in Early Modern Ireland (Manchester, 1997). G. Williams, (Manchester, 1997). G. Williams, Wales and the Reformation Wales and the Reformation (Cardiff, 1997), is one work from the master of the subject. The mid-century crisis of the whole Atlantic Isles is most comprehensively described in A. Woolrych, (Cardiff, 1997), is one work from the master of the subject. The mid-century crisis of the whole Atlantic Isles is most comprehensively described in A. Woolrych, Britain in Revolution 1625-1660 Britain in Revolution 1625-1660 (Oxford, 2002). (Oxford, 2002).

One monumental gazetteer of 'non-magisterial' possibilities of Reformation in Europe has not yet been surpa.s.sed, even though its attempts at cla.s.sification are disputable: G. H. Williams, The Radical Reformation The Radical Reformation (London, 1962). Cla.s.sic studies of an alignment which was always problematic, but which has provoked much fruitful investigation tending to undermine the original proposition, are M. Weber, (London, 1962). Cla.s.sic studies of an alignment which was always problematic, but which has provoked much fruitful investigation tending to undermine the original proposition, are M. Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (various English edns from 1930), a translation of (various English edns from 1930), a translation of Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus, 190 4/5 ), and R. H. Tawney, Religion and the Rise of Capitalism Religion and the Rise of Capitalism (1926). More than a century of debate about the Weber-Tawney thesis is most reliably a.n.a.lysed in H. Lehmann and G. Roth (eds.), (1926). More than a century of debate about the Weber-Tawney thesis is most reliably a.n.a.lysed in H. Lehmann and G. Roth (eds.), Weber's Weber's Protestant Ethic Protestant Ethic: Origins, Evidence, Contexts (Cambridge, 1993). (Cambridge, 1993).

18: Rome's Renewal (1500- 1700) A fine initial survey which has the advantage of taking seriously the worldwide mission of sixteenth-century Catholicism is R. Bireley, The Refas.h.i.+oning of Catholicism, 1450-1700 The Refas.h.i.+oning of Catholicism, 1450-1700 (Houndmills, 1999), and a sprightly overview is given by one of the elder statesmen of the field in J. O'Malley, (Houndmills, 1999), and a sprightly overview is given by one of the elder statesmen of the field in J. O'Malley, Trent and All That: Renaming Catholicism in the Early Modern Era Trent and All That: Renaming Catholicism in the Early Modern Era (Cambridge, MA, 2000). His study of the origins of the Society of Jesus is currently the best available: (Cambridge, MA, 2000). His study of the origins of the Society of Jesus is currently the best available: The First Jesuits The First Jesuits (Cambridge, MA, 1993). A rich variety of sources with commentary is provided by J. C. Olin (ed.), (Cambridge, MA, 1993). A rich variety of sources with commentary is provided by J. C. Olin (ed.), The Catholic Reformation: Savonarola to Ignatius Loyola The Catholic Reformation: Savonarola to Ignatius Loyola (New York, 1992), and a lively treatment of a controversial topic is J. Edwards, (New York, 1992), and a lively treatment of a controversial topic is J. Edwards, The Spanish Inquisition The Spanish Inquisition (Stroud, 1999). J. Bergin, (Stroud, 1999). J. Bergin, Church, Society and Religious Change in France, 1580-1730 Church, Society and Religious Change in France, 1580-1730 (New Haven and London, 2009), deals in masterly fas.h.i.+on with one Protestant Reformation which was eventually vanquished by Counter-Reformation. Admirably sensitive on one of the great mystics of the Christian tradition is A. Weber, (New Haven and London, 2009), deals in masterly fas.h.i.+on with one Protestant Reformation which was eventually vanquished by Counter-Reformation. Admirably sensitive on one of the great mystics of the Christian tradition is A. Weber, Teresa of Avila and the Rhetoric of Femininity Teresa of Avila and the Rhetoric of Femininity (Princeton and London, 1990). On the early modern witch-craze which has so fascinated post-Enlightenment Europeans for good or ill, a sensible short introduction is G. Scarre, (Princeton and London, 1990). On the early modern witch-craze which has so fascinated post-Enlightenment Europeans for good or ill, a sensible short introduction is G. Scarre, Witchcraft and Magic in 16th and 17th Century Europe Witchcraft and Magic in 16th and 17th Century Europe (Basingstoke, 1987), and a superb set of case studies is to be found in J. Barry, M. Hester and G. Roberts (eds.), (Basingstoke, 1987), and a superb set of case studies is to be found in J. Barry, M. Hester and G. Roberts (eds.), Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe: Studies in Culture and Belief Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe: Studies in Culture and Belief (Cambridge, 1996). K. Thomas, (Cambridge, 1996). K. Thomas, Religion and the Decline of Magic Religion and the Decline of Magic (London, 1971), provides a formidable mound of data on the subject. L. Roper, (London, 1971), provides a formidable mound of data on the subject. L. Roper, Oedipus and the Devil: Witchcraft, s.e.xuality and Religion in Early Modern Europe Oedipus and the Devil: Witchcraft, s.e.xuality and Religion in Early Modern Europe (London, 1994), is one thoughtful perspective on the problem, while a study of rare subtlety is S. Clark, (London, 1994), is one thoughtful perspective on the problem, while a study of rare subtlety is S. Clark, Thinking with Demons: The Idea of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe Thinking with Demons: The Idea of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe (Oxford, 1997). (Oxford, 1997).

19: A Worldwide Faith (1500- 1800) The beginnings are superbly introduced in D. Abulafia, The Discovery of Mankind: Atlantic Encounters in the Age of Columbus The Discovery of Mankind: Atlantic Encounters in the Age of Columbus (New Haven and London, 2008), and breathtaking in its ability to range across the globe is F. Fernandez-Armesto, (New Haven and London, 2008), and breathtaking in its ability to range across the globe is F. Fernandez-Armesto, Pathfinders: A Global History of Exploration Pathfinders: A Global History of Exploration (Oxford, 2006). A good background survey is still J. H. Parry, (Oxford, 2006). A good background survey is still J. H. Parry, The Spanish Seaborne Empire The Spanish Seaborne Empire (London, 1966). Phenomenal in his learning on Catholic world mission and a brilliant writer was C. R. Boxer, who complements Parry in his (London, 1966). Phenomenal in his learning on Catholic world mission and a brilliant writer was C. R. Boxer, who complements Parry in his The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825 The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825 (London, 1973), sweeps over the field in (London, 1973), sweeps over the field in The Church Militant and Iberian Expansion 1440-1770 The Church Militant and Iberian Expansion 1440-1770 (Baltimore, 1978), and expounds his particular pa.s.sion in (Baltimore, 1978), and expounds his particular pa.s.sion in The Christian Century in j.a.pan, 1549-1650 The Christian Century in j.a.pan, 1549-1650 (Berkeley, 1967). A work equally bidding fair to achieve cla.s.sic status is M. Brockey, (Berkeley, 1967). A work equally bidding fair to achieve cla.s.sic status is M. Brockey, Journey to the East: The Jesuit Mission to China, 1579-1724 Journey to the East: The Jesuit Mission to China, 1579-1724 (Cambridge, MA, 2007), and a fascinating and quirky companion to the early days of Christian mission is J. D. Spence, (Cambridge, MA, 2007), and a fascinating and quirky companion to the early days of Christian mission is J. D. Spence, The Memory Palace of Matteo Ricci The Memory Palace of Matteo Ricci (London, 1984). Authoritative on its previously neglected subject is J. K. Thornton, (London, 1984). Authoritative on its previously neglected subject is J. K. Thornton, The Kingdom of Kongo: Civil War and Transition, 1641-1718 The Kingdom of Kongo: Civil War and Transition, 1641-1718 (Madison, WI, 1983). (Madison, WI, 1983).

20: Protestant Awakenings (1600- 1800) Astride the field is what may be the culmination of a scholarly career spent explicating the worldwide links of early Evangelicalism: W. R. Ward, The Protestant Evangelical Awakening The Protestant Evangelical Awakening (Cambridge, 1992). The most central composer of the Western Christian tradition is enjoyably approached through W. Mellers, (Cambridge, 1992). The most central composer of the Western Christian tradition is enjoyably approached through W. Mellers, Bach and the Dance of G.o.d Bach and the Dance of G.o.d (London 1980), and C. Wolff, (London 1980), and C. Wolff, Bach: The Learned Musician Bach: The Learned Musician (New York and London, 2000); equally one might wish to contemplate Bach's achievement through the recordings conducted by Sir John Eliot Gardiner. A cla.s.sic exposition of British self-understanding and imperial expansion is L. Colley, (New York and London, 2000); equally one might wish to contemplate Bach's achievement through the recordings conducted by Sir John Eliot Gardiner. A cla.s.sic exposition of British self-understanding and imperial expansion is L. Colley, Britons: Forging the Nation, 1707-1837 Britons: Forging the Nation, 1707-1837 (New Haven and London, 1992). A deeply felt survey from a great Methodist historian is E. G. Rupp, (New Haven and London, 1992). A deeply felt survey from a great Methodist historian is E. G. Rupp, Religion in England 1688- 1791 Religion in England 1688- 1791 (Oxford, 1986), and a usefully different if perhaps skewed perspective may be gained from J. C. D. Clark, (Oxford, 1986), and a usefully different if perhaps skewed perspective may be gained from J. C. D. Clark, English Society 1660-1832: Religion, Ideology and Politics during the Ancien Regime English Society 1660-1832: Religion, Ideology and Politics during the Ancien Regime (Cambridge, 2000). D. Bebbington, (Cambridge, 2000). D. Bebbington, Evangelicalism in Modern Britain: A History from the 1730s to the 1980s Evangelicalism in Modern Britain: A History from the 1730s to the 1980s (London, 1989, and subsequent expansions), has the same centrality for a narrower but still vast field. A splendid introduction to one of Christianity's most significant founder-churchmen from the present doyen of British Methodist scholars.h.i.+p is J. Walsh, (London, 1989, and subsequent expansions), has the same centrality for a narrower but still vast field. A splendid introduction to one of Christianity's most significant founder-churchmen from the present doyen of British Methodist scholars.h.i.+p is J. Walsh, John Wesley: 1703-1791. A Bicentennial Tribute John Wesley: 1703-1791. A Bicentennial Tribute (London, 1993), and H. D. Rack, (London, 1993), and H. D. Rack, Reasonable Enthusiast: John Wesley and the Rise of Methodism Reasonable Enthusiast: John Wesley and the Rise of Methodism (London, 1989), likewise avoids Methodist hagiography. D. Hempton, (London, 1989), likewise avoids Methodist hagiography. D. Hempton, Methodism: Empire of the Spirit Methodism: Empire of the Spirit (New Haven and London, 2005), helps to show why Wesley's legacy continued to be so important. A good introduction to early anglophone colonization in North America is C. Bridenbaugh, (New Haven and London, 2005), helps to show why Wesley's legacy continued to be so important. A good introduction to early anglophone colonization in North America is C. Bridenbaugh, Vexed and Troubled Englishmen, 1590-1642 Vexed and Troubled Englishmen, 1590-1642 (Oxford, 1968), while the relations.h.i.+p between Old and New Worlds is usefully complicated by F. J. Bremer, (Oxford, 1968), while the relations.h.i.+p between Old and New Worlds is usefully complicated by F. J. Bremer, Congregational Communion: Clerical Friends.h.i.+p in the Anglo-American Puritan Community, 1610-1692 Congregational Communion: Clerical Friends.h.i.+p in the Anglo-American Puritan Community, 1610-1692 (Boston, 1994), and S. Hardman Moore, (Boston, 1994), and S. Hardman Moore, Pilgrims: New World Settlers and the Call of Home Pilgrims: New World Settlers and the Call of Home (New Haven and London, 2007). L. E. Schmidt, (New Haven and London, 2007). L. E. Schmidt, Holy Fairs: Scottish Communions and American Revivals in the Early Modern Period Holy Fairs: Scottish Communions and American Revivals in the Early Modern Period (Princeton, 1989), like W. R. Ward, makes unexpected connections across the Atlantic, and is paralleled by a highly engaging and original survey, P. Bonomi, (Princeton, 1989), like W. R. Ward, makes unexpected connections across the Atlantic, and is paralleled by a highly engaging and original survey, P. Bonomi, Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society and Politics in Colonial America Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society and Politics in Colonial America (New York and Oxford, 1986). Lively and wise is J. Butler, (New York and Oxford, 1986). Lively and wise is J. Butler, Awash in a Sea of Faith: Christianizing the American People Awash in a Sea of Faith: Christianizing the American People (Cambridge, MA, 1990). (Cambridge, MA, 1990).

PART VII: G.o.d IN THE DOCK (1492-PRESENT).

General Reading D. Cupitt, The Sea of Faith: Christianity in Change The Sea of Faith: Christianity in Change (London, 1984), is a concise statement of this important theologian's historical reflection on the Enlightenment and its significance for Christianity, paralleled in its radical questioning and historical a.n.a.lysis by P. Kennedy, (London, 1984), is a concise statement of this important theologian's historical reflection on the Enlightenment and its significance for Christianity, paralleled in its radical questioning and historical a.n.a.lysis by P. Kennedy, A Modern Introduction to Theology: New Questions for Old Beliefs A Modern Introduction to Theology: New Questions for Old Beliefs (London, 2006). A more sober but highly useful historical account is D. Rosman, (London, 2006). A more sober but highly useful historical account is D. Rosman, The Evolution of the English Churches 1500-2000 The Evolution of the English Churches 1500-2000 (Cambridge, 2003), and a wide sweep of a central topic is N. Atkin and F. Tallett, (Cambridge, 2003), and a wide sweep of a central topic is N. Atkin and F. Tallett, Priests, Prelates and People: A History of European Catholicism since 1750 Priests, Prelates and People: A History of European Catholicism since 1750 (London, 2003). A counter-theme of some importance is dealt with by D. Nash, (London, 2003). A counter-theme of some importance is dealt with by D. Nash, Blasphemy in Modern Britain 1789-present Blasphemy in Modern Britain 1789-present (Aldershot, 1999). (Aldershot, 1999).

21: Enlightenment: Ally or Enemy? (1492- 1815) There is a lack of any short introduction to the religion of the period, but a superb collection of essays is to be found in S. J. Brown and T. Tackett (eds.), The Cambridge History of Christianity 7: Enlightenment, Reawakening and Revolution 1660-1815 The Cambridge History of Christianity 7: Enlightenment, Reawakening and Revolution 1660-1815 (Cambridge, 2006). J. I. Israel, (Cambridge, 2006). J. I. Israel, Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650- 1750 Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650- 1750 (Oxford, 2001), offers a superb reinterpretation of the origins of the Enlightenment which has won much approval. O. Chadwick, (Oxford, 2001), offers a superb reinterpretation of the origins of the Enlightenment which has won much approval. O. Chadwick, The Popes and European Revolution The Popes and European Revolution (Oxford, 1981), is perhaps Chadwick's most remarkable and original book; there is nothing else like it, although D. Beales, (Oxford, 1981), is perhaps Chadwick's most remarkable and original book; there is nothing else like it, although D. Beales, Prosperity and Plunder: European Catholic Monasteries in the Age of Revolution, 1650-1815 Prosperity and Plunder: European Catholic Monasteries in the Age of Revolution, 1650-1815 (Cambridge, 2003), is a richly enjoyable and equally original treatment of one aspect of the same subject, beautifully ill.u.s.trated. J. McManners, (Cambridge, 2003), is a richly enjoyable and equally original treatment of one aspect of the same subject, beautifully ill.u.s.trated. J. McManners, Church and Society in Eighteenth-century France Church and Society in Eighteenth-century France (2 vols., Oxford, 1998), is unequalled in its treatment. Of the vast literature on the French Revolution, D. Andress, (2 vols., Oxford, 1998), is unequalled in its treatment. Of the vast literature on the French Revolution, D. Andress, The French Revolution and the People The French Revolution and the People (London, 2004), is one of the most interesting recent considerations. (London, 2004), is one of the most interesting recent considerations.

22: Europe Re-enchanted or Disenchanted? (1815- 1914) An absorbing survey of European religion, perhaps a little kind to Roman Catholicism, at least by omission, is M. Burleigh, Earthly Powers: The Conflict between Religion and Politics from the French Revolution to the Great War Earthly Powers: The Conflict between Religion and Politics from the French Revolution to the Great War (London, 2005). The Oxford History of the Christian Church series serves the period well with O. Chadwick, (London, 2005). The Oxford History of the Christian Church series serves the period well with O. Chadwick, A History of the Popes 1830-1914 A History of the Popes 1830-1914 (Oxford, 1998), and N. Hope, (Oxford, 1998), and N. Hope, German and Scandinavian Protestantism, 1700- 1918 German and Scandinavian Protestantism, 1700- 1918 (Oxford, 1995). A fine life of one who appears far more important in retrospect than he seemed at the time is J. Garff, (Oxford, 1995). A fine life of one who appears far more important in retrospect than he seemed at the time is J. Garff, Soren Kierkegaard: A Biography Soren Kierkegaard: A Biography (Princeton, 2005), and one who was immediately recognized as exceptional is superbly portrayed in J. Browne, (Princeton, 2005), and one who was immediately recognized as exceptional is superbly portrayed in J. Browne, Charles Darwin Charles Darwin (2 vols., London, 1995, 2002). Of the literature on Marian devotion in the nineteenth century, D. Blackbourn, (2 vols., London, 1995, 2002). Of the literature on Marian devotion in the nineteenth century, D. Blackbourn, Marpingen: Apparitions of the Virgin Mary in Bismarckian Germany Marpingen: Apparitions of the Virgin Mary in Bismarckian Germany (Oxford, 1993), is perhaps the most important case study of an extraordinary phenomenon in European society. J. McManners, (Oxford, 1993), is perhaps the most important case study of an extraordinary phenomenon in European society. J. McManners, Church and State in France 1870- 1914 Church and State in France 1870- 1914 (London, 1972), is a concise survey of a deeply riven era of French politics, whose fruits are to be sampled more seriously than a comic novel might normally promise in G. Chevallier, (London, 1972), is a concise survey of a deeply riven era of French politics, whose fruits are to be sampled more seriously than a comic novel might normally promise in G. Chevallier, Clochemerle-les-Bains Clochemerle-les-Bains, whose French original of 1934 has various English translations. M. Angold (ed.), The Cambridge History of Christianity 5: Eastern Christianity The Cambridge History of Christianity 5: Eastern Christianity (Cambridge, 2006) is a sure guide to the travails and growing ascendancy of Orthodoxy during the period. (Cambridge, 2006) is a sure guide to the travails and growing ascendancy of Orthodoxy during the period.

O. Chadwick, The Secularization of the European Mind in the Nineteenth Century The Secularization of the European Mind in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge, 1975), is a fine survey, while on a more restricted subject, O. Chadwick, (Cambridge, 1975), is a fine survey, while on a more restricted subject, O. Chadwick, The Victorian Church The Victorian Church (2 vols., 2nd edn, London, 1970-72), is written with such lightness of touch that one hardly notices its two-volume size. Other dimensions of English religion are well served by F. Knight, (2 vols., 2nd edn, London, 1970-72), is written with such lightness of touch that one hardly notices its two-volume size. Other dimensions of English religion are well served by F. Knight, The Church in the Nineteenth Century The Church in the Nineteenth Century (London, 2008), and British theology is serviceably introduced by B. M. G. Reardon, (London, 2008), and British theology is serviceably introduced by B. M. G. Reardon, Religious Thought in the Victorian Age Religious Thought in the Victorian Age (London, 1980); background doc.u.ments are usefully gathered in A. O. J. c.o.c.kshut, (London, 1980); background doc.u.ments are usefully gathered in A. O. J. c.o.c.kshut, Religious Controversies of the Nineteenth Century: Selected Doc.u.ments Religious Controversies of the Nineteenth Century: Selected Doc.u.ments (London, 1966). One of the most balanced accounts of the Oxford Movement and its consequences, by a primate of the allied Swedish Lutheran Church, is still Y. Brilioth, (London, 1966). One of the most balanced accounts of the Oxford Movement and its consequences, by a primate of the allied Swedish Lutheran Church, is still Y. Brilioth, The Anglican Revival: Studies in the Oxford Movement The Anglican Revival: Studies in the Oxford Movement (London, 1933). The character of nineteenth-century Anglicanism is beautifully traced in the works of D. Newsome, (London, 1933). The character of nineteenth-century Anglicanism is beautifully traced in the works of D. Newsome, G.o.dliness and Good Learning: Four Studies on a Victorian Ideal G.o.dliness and Good Learning: Four Studies on a Victorian Ideal (London, 1961), on the impact of religion on education, and his (London, 1961), on the impact of religion on education, and his The Parting of Friends: A Study of the Wilberforces and Henry Manning The Parting of Friends: A Study of the Wilberforces and Henry Manning (London, 1966). Newsome also wrote an illuminating dual biography of (London, 1966). Newsome also wrote an illuminating dual biography of The Convert Cardinals: John Henry Newman and Henry Edward Manning The Convert Cardinals: John Henry Newman and Henry Edward Manning (London, 1993), though the standard biography of Newman is still I. Ker, (London, 1993), though the standard biography of Newman is still I. Ker, John Henry Newman John Henry Newman (Oxford, 1988). (Oxford, 1988).

23: To Make the World Protestant (1700- 1914) In addition to the surveys of particular regions listed above under 'General Reading for All Christian History', the essayists of S. Gilley and B. Stanley (eds.), The Cambridge History of Christianity 8: World Christianities c. 1815-c. 1914 The Cambridge History of Christianity 8: World Christianities c. 1815-c. 1914 (Cambridge, 2006), should be eagerly consulted. The greatest of world empires of the period is presented in B. Stanley, (Cambridge, 2006), should be eagerly consulted. The greatest of world empires of the period is presented in B. Stanley, The Bible and the Flag: Protestant Missions and British Imperialism in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries The Bible and the Flag: Protestant Missions and British Imperialism in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (Leicester, 1990), A. Porter, (Leicester, 1990), A. Porter, Religion versus Empire? British Protestant Missionaries and Overseas Expansion, 1700-1914 Religion versus Empire? British Protestant Missionaries and Overseas Expansion, 1700-1914 (Manchester, 2004), and J. c.o.x, (Manchester, 2004), and J. c.o.x, The British Missionary Enterprise since 1700 The British Missionary Enterprise since 1700 (New York and London, 2008). A princ.i.p.al theme tangled with that story and Britain's American offshoot is magisterially discussed in both D. B. Davis, (New York and London, 2008). A princ.i.p.al theme tangled with that story and Britain's American offshoot is magisterially discussed in both D. B. Davis, Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World (Oxford, 2006), and C. Kidd, (Oxford, 2006), and C. Kidd, The Forging of Races: Race and Scripture in the Protestant Atlantic World, 1600-2000 The Forging of Races: Race and Scripture in the Protestant Atlantic World, 1600-2000 (Cambridge, 2006). I. Breward, (Cambridge, 2006). I. Breward, A History of the Churches in Australasia A History of the Churches in Australasia (Oxford, 2001), is judicious and comprehensive. (Oxford, 2001), is judicious and comprehensive.

24: Not Peace but a Sword (1914- 1960) J. Morris, The Church in the Modern Age The Church in the Modern Age (London, 2007), provides excellent shapes for the period, expanded by the essays in H. McLeod (ed.), (London, 2007), provides excellent shapes for the period, expanded by the essays in H. McLeod (ed.), The Cambridge History of Christianity 9: World Christianities c. 1914-c. 2000 The Cambridge History of Christianity 9: World Christianities c. 1914-c. 2000 (Cambridge, 2006). The best guide to Western theology over the last century is P. Kennedy, (Cambridge, 2006). The best guide to Western theology over the last century is P. Kennedy, Twentieth Century Theologians: A New Introduction Twentieth Century Theologians: A New Introduction (London, 2009). Admirable in its clarification of much that is complicated is A. Anderson, (London, 2009). Admirable in its clarification of much that is complicated is A. Anderson, An Introduction to Pentecostalism An Introduction to Pentecostalism (Cambridge, 2004), although it lacks the panache of G. Wacker, (Cambridge, 2004), although it lacks the panache of G. Wacker, Heaven Below: Early Pentecostals and American Culture Heaven Below: Early Pentecostals and American Culture (Cambridge, MA, 2001). A. Hastings, (Cambridge, MA, 2001). A. Hastings, A History of English Christianity 1920-1990 A History of English Christianity 1920-1990 (3rd edn, London, 1991), is both reflective and hugely entertaining. W. Dalrymple, (3rd edn, London, 1991), is both reflective and hugely entertaining. W. Dalrymple, From the Holy Mountain From the Holy Mountain (London, 1997), is (in addition to being fine travel literature) a sobering account of the agony of Christianity in the Middle East over the last century. (London, 1997), is (in addition to being fine travel literature) a sobering account of the agony of Christianity in the Middle East over the last century.

25: Culture Wars (1960-present) H. McLeod, The Religious Crisis of the 1960s The Religious Crisis of the 1960s (Oxford, 2007), examines the cultural s.h.i.+ft which sparked a turbulent half-century, from the point of view of one historian who remembers being there. As events unfold, it is difficult to provide reading which will keep pace with them, but the early twenty-first century saw a 'battle of the books' which put discussions about Christianity and religion in general back in the public sphere to a degree they have not been in some while. Developing a line of essentially anthropological thought, the biologist Richard Dawkins argues in (Oxford, 2007), examines the cultural s.h.i.+ft which sparked a turbulent half-century, from the point of view of one historian who remembers being there. As events unfold, it is difficult to provide reading which will keep pace with them, but the early twenty-first century saw a 'battle of the books' which put discussions about Christianity and religion in general back in the public sphere to a degree they have not been in some while. Developing a line of essentially anthropological thought, the biologist Richard Dawkins argues in The G.o.d Delusion The G.o.d Delusion (London, 2006) that there is no longer any need for G.o.d and no 'evidence' to support religious belief; the professional polemicist Christopher Hitchens produced a polemical follow-on in (London, 2006) that there is no longer any need for G.o.d and no 'evidence' to support religious belief; the professional polemicist Christopher Hitchens produced a polemical follow-on in G.o.d is not Great: The Case against Religion G.o.d is not Great: The Case against Religion (London, 2007). Against this, A. Wooldridge, (London, 2007). Against this, A. Wooldridge, G.o.d is Back: How the Global Revival of Faith is Changing the World G.o.d is Back: How the Global Revival of Faith is Changing the World (London, 2009), makes the point that Christianity is resurgent almost everywhere except 'old Europe' and that there may already be more Christians in China than any other country in the world. In a number of subtle and impressive studies, particularly (London, 2009), makes the point that Christianity is resurgent almost everywhere except 'old Europe' and that there may already be more Christians in China than any other country in the world. In a number of subtle and impressive studies, particularly Black Ma.s.s: Apocalyptic Religion and the Death of Utopia Black Ma.s.s: Apocalyptic Religion and the Death of Utopia (London, 2007), the philosopher John Gray has argued that whatever the level of overt Christian observance in the old world, Christianity has had a decisive influence in shaping secular movements from the Enlightenment to Communism. (London, 2007), the philosopher John Gray has argued that whatever the level of overt Christian observance in the old world, Christianity has had a decisive influence in shaping secular movements from the Enlightenment to Communism.

A sobering a.n.a.lysis of the recent US story is M. Northcott, An Angel Directs the Storm: Apocalyptic Religion and American Empire An Angel Directs the Storm: Apocalyptic Religion and American Empire (London, 2004). M. A. Sells, (London, 2004). M. A. Sells, The Bridge Betrayed: Religion and Genocide in Bosnia The Bridge Betrayed: Religion and Genocide in Bosnia (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1996), unflinchingly examines a conflict of the period whose roots and course form one of the most shaming indictments of European religious divisions. One work from Britain's leading expert on Soviet religion which captures the moment of change in Eastern Europe as it happened is M. Bourdeaux, (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1996), unflinchingly examines a conflict of the period whose roots and course form one of the most shaming indictments of European religious divisions. One work from Britain's leading expert on Soviet religion which captures the moment of change in Eastern Europe as it happened is M. Bourdeaux, Gorbachev, Glasnost and the Gospel Gorbachev, Glasnost and the Gospel (London, 1990). J. Cornwell, (London, 1990). J. Cornwell, Breaking Faith: The Pope, the People and the Fate of Catholicism Breaking Faith: The Pope, the People and the Fate of Catholicism (London, 2001), expresses many of the tensions felt in the worldwide Catholic Church. The council which helped to spark them is given a more upbeat a.n.a.lysis by the essayists of R. F. Bulman and F. J. Parrella (eds.), (London, 2001), expresses many of the tensions felt in the worldwide Catholic Church. The council which helped to spark them is given a more upbeat a.n.a.lysis by the essayists of R. F. Bulman and F. J. Parrella (eds.), From Trent to Vatican II: Historical and Theological Investigations From Trent to Vatican II: Historical and Theological Investigations (Oxford, 2006). One controversial form of Roman Catholicism can be sampled in A. T. Hennelly (ed.), (Oxford, 2006). One controversial form of Roman Catholicism can be sampled in A. T. Hennelly (ed.), Liberation Theology: A Doc.u.mentary History Liberation Theology: A Doc.u.mentary History (Maryknoll, 1990). W. Hollenweger, (Maryknoll, 1990). W. Hollenweger, Pentecostalism: Origins and Developments Worldwide Pentecostalism: Origins and Developments Worldwide (Peabody, MA, 1997), is an impressive survey by the scholar who pioneered serious study of the worldwide movement which has nurtured his own faith, and the essayists of T. O. Ranger (ed.), (Peabody, MA, 1997), is an impressive survey by the scholar who pioneered serious study of the worldwide movement which has nurtured his own faith, and the essayists of T. O. Ranger (ed.), Evangelical Christianity and Democracy in Africa Evangelical Christianity and Democracy in Africa (Oxford, 2008), hint at a possible positive nexus between Christianity and politics in a so-far persistently troubled continent. (Oxford, 2008), hint at a possible positive nexus between Christianity and politics in a so-far persistently troubled continent.

Christianity - The First Three Thousand Years Part 37

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