Christianity - The First Three Thousand Years Part 36

You’re reading novel Christianity - The First Three Thousand Years Part 36 online at LightNovelFree.com. Please use the follow button to get notification about the latest chapter next time when you visit LightNovelFree.com. Use F11 button to read novel in full-screen(PC only). Drop by anytime you want to read free – fast – latest novel. It’s great if you could leave a comment, share your opinion about the new chapters, new novel with others on the internet. We’ll do our best to bring you the finest, latest novel everyday. Enjoy!

58 See respectively See respectively Congressional Record Congressional Record, 4 March 2002, S1429, and Senator Inhofe's website, http://inhofe.senate.gov/pressreleases/climateupdate.htm (accessed 5 April 2009). See also G. Wills, 'A Country Ruled by Faith', (accessed 5 April 2009). See also G. Wills, 'A Country Ruled by Faith', New York Review of Books New York Review of Books, 16 November 2006, 8-12, at 10.

59 Cornwell, Cornwell, The Pope in Winter The Pope in Winter, 84-6.

60 Snyder, 211-12, and cf. ibid., 267, 276. Snyder, 211-12, and cf. ibid., 267, 276.

61 MacCulloch, 45, 483. MacCulloch, 45, 483.

62 J. Cornwell, J. Cornwell, Breaking Faith: The Pope, the People and the Fate of Catholicism Breaking Faith: The Pope, the People and the Fate of Catholicism (London, 2001), 257. (London, 2001), 257.



63 On ' On 'magisterium', see Kennedy, A Modern Introduction to Theology A Modern Introduction to Theology, 215.

64 Duffy, 372 - 3; Kennedy, Duffy, 372 - 3; Kennedy, A Modern Introduction to Theology A Modern Introduction to Theology, 196-7.

65 M. Gonzalez-Wippler, M. Gonzalez-Wippler, Santeria: The Religion Santeria: The Religion (Woodbury, MN, 1994), 258. On (Woodbury, MN, 1994), 258. On Candomble Candomble and its allied religions, see pp. 712 - 14. and its allied religions, see pp. 712 - 14.

66 Shortt, Shortt, Benedict XVI Benedict XVI, 44-9.

67 After the publicity triggered by the Church authorities' recent inept removal of Newman's remains from his Birmingham grave (which he had stipulated that his body must share with the corpse of his lifelong companion, Ambrose St John), the Cardinal's unexpected emergence as a gay icon was not an a.s.set to the cause of his sainthood. After the publicity triggered by the Church authorities' recent inept removal of Newman's remains from his Birmingham grave (which he had stipulated that his body must share with the corpse of his lifelong companion, Ambrose St John), the Cardinal's unexpected emergence as a gay icon was not an a.s.set to the cause of his sainthood.

68 E. T. Oakes, SJ, and D. Moss (eds.), E. T. Oakes, SJ, and D. Moss (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Hans Urs von Balthasar The Cambridge Companion to Hans Urs von Balthasar (Cambridge, 2004), esp. 4-5, 194 - 5, 241-2, 256 - 68; A. Nichols, 'An Introduction to Balthasar', (Cambridge, 2004), esp. 4-5, 194 - 5, 241-2, 256 - 68; A. Nichols, 'An Introduction to Balthasar', New Blackfriars New Blackfriars, 79 (1998), 2-10, at 9; P. Endean, 'Von Balthasar, Rahner and the Commissar', ibid., 33 - 8.

69 The Tablet The Tablet, 8 January 1999.

70 Cornwell, Cornwell, The Pope in Winter The Pope in Winter, Ch. 29. The mendacious statements of some African Catholic leaders about the ineffectiveness of condoms remain one of the blots on the moral reputation of the Catholic Church in that continent.

71 I am indebted to Philip Kennedy for suggesting this I am indebted to Philip Kennedy for suggesting this midrash midrash on Western theories of the ontological status of priesthood. on Western theories of the ontological status of priesthood.

72 Vatican Press Office statement, 19 May 2006: translated Vatican Press Office statement, 19 May 2006: translated http://nationalcatholicreporter.org/update/maciel-communique.pdf, accessed 14 September 2008. J. Berry and G. Renner, Vows of Silence: The Abuse of Power in the Papacy of John Paul II Vows of Silence: The Abuse of Power in the Papacy of John Paul II (New York, 2004). (New York, 2004).

73 Cornwell, Cornwell, The Pope in Winter The Pope in Winter, Ch. 28.

74 S. Albrecht, S. Albrecht, Geschichte der Grossmahrenforschung in den tschechischen Landern und in der Slowakei Geschichte der Grossmahrenforschung in den tschechischen Landern und in der Slowakei (Prague, 2003), 199-220, 236 - 8. (Prague, 2003), 199-220, 236 - 8.

75 J. Keane, J. Keane, Vaclav Havel: A Political Tragedy in Six Acts Vaclav Havel: A Political Tragedy in Six Acts (London, 1999), 382 - 3, though the event is there misdated. (London, 1999), 382 - 3, though the event is there misdated.

76 A fine study of these years, albeit written before the last crisis of Gorbachev's rule, is M. Bourdeaux, A fine study of these years, albeit written before the last crisis of Gorbachev's rule, is M. Bourdeaux, Gorbachev, Glasnost and the Gospel Gorbachev, Glasnost and the Gospel (London, 1990). (London, 1990).

77 S. Plokhy and F. E. Sysyn, S. Plokhy and F. E. Sysyn, Religion and Nation in Modern Ukraine Religion and Nation in Modern Ukraine (Edmonton, AB, 2003). (Edmonton, AB, 2003).

78 M. Bourdeaux and A. Popescu, 'The Orthodox Church and Communism', in Angold (ed.), 558 - 79, at 575. M. Bourdeaux and A. Popescu, 'The Orthodox Church and Communism', in Angold (ed.), 558 - 79, at 575.

79 C. Andrew and V. Mitrokhin, C. Andrew and V. Mitrokhin, The Mitrokhin Archive II: The KGB and the World The Mitrokhin Archive II: The KGB and the World (London, 2005), 490 - 91, and Pls. 23 and 24. (London, 2005), 490 - 91, and Pls. 23 and 24.

80 W. L. Daniel, 'Reconstructing the "Sacred canopy": Mother Serafima and Novodevichy Monastery', W. L. Daniel, 'Reconstructing the "Sacred canopy": Mother Serafima and Novodevichy Monastery', JEH JEH, 59 (2008), 249-71.

81 For a parallel history of Russian Orthodox imitations of architectural form, to make a more purely theological point, in Cathedrals of the Dormition, see pp. 507-8 and 524. For a parallel history of Russian Orthodox imitations of architectural form, to make a more purely theological point, in Cathedrals of the Dormition, see pp. 507-8 and 524.

82 Binns, 238. Binns, 238.

83 A cla.s.sic study of this emigration and its origins is N. Zernov, A cla.s.sic study of this emigration and its origins is N. Zernov, The Russian Religious Renaissance of the Twentieth Century The Russian Religious Renaissance of the Twentieth Century (London, 1963), esp. Ch. 9. (London, 1963), esp. Ch. 9.

84 B. Geffert, 'Anglican Orders and Orthodox Politics', B. Geffert, 'Anglican Orders and Orthodox Politics', JEH JEH, 57 (2006), 270-300, at 288 - 94.

85 K. Buchenau, ' K. Buchenau, 'Svetosavlje und und Pravosavlje Pravosavlje: Nationales und Universales in der serbischen Orthodoxie', in M. Schulze Wessel (ed.), Nationalisierung der Religion und Sakralisierung der Nation im ostlichen Europa Nationalisierung der Religion und Sakralisierung der Nation im ostlichen Europa (Stuttgart, 2006), 203-32, at 211-14. (Stuttgart, 2006), 203-32, at 211-14.

86 Binns, 93; Buchenau, ' Binns, 93; Buchenau, 'Svetosavlje und und Pravosavlje Pravosavlje', 221-4.

87 B. Anzulovic, B. Anzulovic, Heavenly Serbia: From Myth to Genocide Heavenly Serbia: From Myth to Genocide (London, 1999), esp. 51-61. For a wise overview of the Serbian cultural formation and comparable situations, see A. Hastings, 'Holy Lands and Their Political Consequences', (London, 1999), esp. 51-61. For a wise overview of the Serbian cultural formation and comparable situations, see A. Hastings, 'Holy Lands and Their Political Consequences', Nations and Nationalism Nations and Nationalism, 9 (2003), 29-54, esp. 40-42.

88 B. Panteli, 'Nationalism and Architecture: The Creation of a National Style in Serbian Architecture and Its Political Implications', B. Panteli, 'Nationalism and Architecture: The Creation of a National Style in Serbian Architecture and Its Political Implications', Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians , 56 (1997), 16-41, at 33-5. , 56 (1997), 16-41, at 33-5.

89 A ruefully fair account by an academic of Serb descent, which does not minimize Croat or Muslim atrocities and cultural destruction, is M. A. Sells, A ruefully fair account by an academic of Serb descent, which does not minimize Croat or Muslim atrocities and cultural destruction, is M. A. Sells, The Bridge Betrayed: Religion and Genocide in Bosnia The Bridge Betrayed: Religion and Genocide in Bosnia (Berkeley, CA, and Los Angeles, 1996). (Berkeley, CA, and Los Angeles, 1996).

90 Jenkins, 244. Jenkins, 244.

91 F. Knight, F. Knight, The Nineteenth-Century Church and English Society The Nineteenth-Century Church and English Society (Cambridge, 1995), 21, 23, 31n, 35, 66; P. Slack, 'Government and Information in Seventeenth-century England', (Cambridge, 1995), 21, 23, 31n, 35, 66; P. Slack, 'Government and Information in Seventeenth-century England', PP PP, 184 (August 2004), 33-68.

92 G. Speake, G. Speake, Mount Athos: Renewal in Paradise Mount Athos: Renewal in Paradise (New Haven and London, 2002), 173- 209, and NB especially the emphasis on the restoration of community (coen.o.bitic) life over idiorhythmic monasticism. On renewal in Coptic Egypt, see A. O'Mahony, 'Coptic Christianity in Modern Egypt', in Angold (ed.), 488-510, at 501-8. (New Haven and London, 2002), 173- 209, and NB especially the emphasis on the restoration of community (coen.o.bitic) life over idiorhythmic monasticism. On renewal in Coptic Egypt, see A. O'Mahony, 'Coptic Christianity in Modern Egypt', in Angold (ed.), 488-510, at 501-8.

93 C. Cavafy, 'Waiting for the Barbarians' (1904), qu. Speake, C. Cavafy, 'Waiting for the Barbarians' (1904), qu. Speake, Mount Athos Mount Athos, 194: he was speaking of the paradoxical sense of moral relief which a late Roman aristocrat might have felt at the invasion of forces over the imperial borders.

94 Koschorke et al. (eds.), 273-4; I. Apawo Phiri, 'President Frederick Chiluba and Zambia: Evangelicals and Democracy in a "Christian Nation" ', in Ranger (ed.), Koschorke et al. (eds.), 273-4; I. Apawo Phiri, 'President Frederick Chiluba and Zambia: Evangelicals and Democracy in a "Christian Nation" ', in Ranger (ed.), Evangelical Christianity and Democracy in Africa Evangelical Christianity and Democracy in Africa, 95-130.

95 L. Sanneh, 'Religion's Return', L. Sanneh, 'Religion's Return', TLS TLS, 13 October 2006, 14.

96 Jenkins, 37. Jenkins, 37.

97 See, e.g., report 'President's Apology', See, e.g., report 'President's Apology', Korea Times Korea Times, 'Opinion', 9 September 2008, http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/opinon/2008/09/202-30800.html, accessed 25 September 2008.

98 I am grateful to Professor Sangkeun Kim of Yonsei University, Seoul, for our discussions about the significance of these figures. I am grateful to Professor Sangkeun Kim of Yonsei University, Seoul, for our discussions about the significance of these figures.

99 Sermon of 1982, qu. B. Chenu et al. (eds.), Sermon of 1982, qu. B. Chenu et al. (eds.), The Book of Christian Martyrs The Book of Christian Martyrs (London, 1990), 211. (London, 1990), 211.

100 Breward, 253, 303-7. Breward, 253, 303-7.

101 C. McGillion, C. McGillion, The Chosen Ones: The Politics of Salvation in the Anglican Church The Chosen Ones: The Politics of Salvation in the Anglican Church (Sydney, 2005). (Sydney, 2005).

102 S. Bates, S. Bates, A Church at War: Anglicans and h.o.m.os.e.xuality A Church at War: Anglicans and h.o.m.os.e.xuality (London, 2004), 129-30; see also ibid., 136-7. (London, 2004), 129-30; see also ibid., 136-7.

103 Ibid., 198. Ibid., 198.

104 G. Wills, 'Fringe Government', G. Wills, 'Fringe Government', New York Review of Books New York Review of Books, 6 October 2005, 46-50, at 47.

105 A. Hastings, 'Latin America', in Hastings (ed.), at 365-7. A. Hastings, 'Latin America', in Hastings (ed.), at 365-7.

106 J. K. Asamoah-Gyadu, J. K. Asamoah-Gyadu, African Charismatics: Current Developments within Independent Indigenous Pentecostalism in Ghana African Charismatics: Current Developments within Independent Indigenous Pentecostalism in Ghana (Leiden, 2005), 240. W. Hollenweger, (Leiden, 2005), 240. W. Hollenweger, Pentecostalism: Origins and Developments Worldwide Pentecostalism: Origins and Developments Worldwide (Peabody, MA, 1997), 200-217. For discussion of changing politics in African Evangelicalism generally, see Ranger (ed.), (Peabody, MA, 1997), 200-217. For discussion of changing politics in African Evangelicalism generally, see Ranger (ed.), Evangelical Christianity and Democracy in Africa Evangelical Christianity and Democracy in Africa, esp. xii-xiii, and P. Gifford, 'Evangelical Christianity and Democracy in Africa: A Response', ibid., 225-42.

107 On the time-lag in att.i.tudes to h.e.l.l among Catholics, Hastings, 272-3. On the time-lag in att.i.tudes to h.e.l.l among Catholics, Hastings, 272-3.

108 On Maurice, O. Chadwick, On Maurice, O. Chadwick, The Victorian Church The Victorian Church (2 vols., 2nd edn, London, 1970-72), I, 545-50; on the Irving nexus, R. Brown, 'Victorian Anglican Evangelicalism: The Radical Legacy of Edward Irving', (2 vols., 2nd edn, London, 1970-72), I, 545-50; on the Irving nexus, R. Brown, 'Victorian Anglican Evangelicalism: The Radical Legacy of Edward Irving', JEH JEH, 58 (2007), 675-704, at 694-701. See also G. Rowell, h.e.l.l and the Victorians: A Study of the Nineteenth-century Theological Controversies Concerning Eternal Punishment and the Future Life h.e.l.l and the Victorians: A Study of the Nineteenth-century Theological Controversies Concerning Eternal Punishment and the Future Life (Oxford, 1974). (Oxford, 1974).

109 B. Parsons, B. Parsons, Committed to the Cleansing Flame: The Development of Cremation in Nineteenth-century England Committed to the Cleansing Flame: The Development of Cremation in Nineteenth-century England (Reading, 2005), 39 (quotation), 51. (Reading, 2005), 39 (quotation), 51.

110 S. Prothero, S. Prothero, Purified by Fire: A History of Cremation in America Purified by Fire: A History of Cremation in America (Berkeley, CA, and Los Angeles, 2001), esp. 188-9, 202-12. The first American cremation was in 1876: ibid., 15. See also P. C. Jupp, (Berkeley, CA, and Los Angeles, 2001), esp. 188-9, 202-12. The first American cremation was in 1876: ibid., 15. See also P. C. Jupp, From Dust to Ashes: Cremation and the British Way of Death From Dust to Ashes: Cremation and the British Way of Death (Houndmills, 2006), esp. 193-6. (Houndmills, 2006), esp. 193-6.

111 J. Northrop Moore, J. Northrop Moore, Elgar: Child of Dreams Elgar: Child of Dreams (London, 2004), 44-5, 65-6, 70-71, 77, 130; I. Kemp, (London, 2004), 44-5, 65-6, 70-71, 77, 130; I. Kemp, Tippett: The Composer and His Music Tippett: The Composer and His Music (Oxford and New York, 1987), 9, 29-33, 154, 158, 386-91; P. Holmes, (Oxford and New York, 1987), 9, 29-33, 154, 158, 386-91; P. Holmes, Vaughan Williams: His Life and Times Vaughan Williams: His Life and Times (London, New York and Sydney, 1997), 35-7, 42-3; S. A. Morrison, (London, New York and Sydney, 1997), 35-7, 42-3; S. A. Morrison, Russian Opera and the Symbolist Movement Russian Opera and the Symbolist Movement (Berkeley, CA, and London, 2002), 116-17, 121-2. (Berkeley, CA, and London, 2002), 116-17, 121-2.

112 Qu. ibid., 115. Qu. ibid., 115.

113 I. Watts, I. Watts, Psalms of David Psalms of David (1719): 'Jesus shall reign where'er the sun . . .' My italics. (1719): 'Jesus shall reign where'er the sun . . .' My italics.

114 A point made with elegance by P. Jenkins, A point made with elegance by P. Jenkins, Mystics and Messiahs: Cults and New Religions in American History Mystics and Messiahs: Cults and New Religions in American History (Oxford and New York, 2000), esp. 17-18, 232-5. (Oxford and New York, 2000), esp. 17-18, 232-5.

115 H. U. von Balthasar, H. U. von Balthasar, The Moment of Christian Witness The Moment of Christian Witness (San Francisco, 1994; first published 1966), 32. (San Francisco, 1994; first published 1966), 32.

116 Figures provided by the Figures provided by the International Bulletin of Missionary Research International Bulletin of Missionary Research, 33 (2009), 32: Global Table 5.

Further Reading This is designed to provide general introductory reading or cla.s.sic works in English in the various sections of the book. Detailed reading on particular topics is cited in the notes relating to each chapter, often in works in languages other than English, and is not necessarily repeated here; the same applies to books listed in the table of abbreviations.

GENERAL READING FOR ALL CHRISTIAN HISTORY.

Indispensable for reference is the present-day manifestation of a work quirkily Anglo-Catholic in flavour in its first guise half a century ago, but now transformed, E. A. Livingstone (ed.), The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4th edn, Oxford, 2005). Reliable too are the expert essays themed by region and Church in K. Parry (ed.), (4th edn, Oxford, 2005). Reliable too are the expert essays themed by region and Church in K. Parry (ed.), The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity (Oxford, 2007). A work of reference which has no peer in any other culture, providing biographies of individuals connected with the British Isles/ Atlantic Isles or the British Empire, is the (Oxford, 2007). A work of reference which has no peer in any other culture, providing biographies of individuals connected with the British Isles/ Atlantic Isles or the British Empire, is the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, best consulted in its regularly updated and corrected form as http://www.oxforddnb.com/index.js. Papal official p.r.o.nouncements from the pontificate of Leo XIII are to be found on the Vatican website at http://www.vatican.va/holy-father/.

Of making surveys of Christian history, there is no end. A slightly less daunting way in than the present volume, with more emphasis on primary doc.u.ments, is J. Comby with D. MacCulloch, How to Read Church History How to Read Church History (2 vols., London, 1985, 1989), and an incisive and lavishly ill.u.s.trated survey is O. Chadwick, (2 vols., London, 1985, 1989), and an incisive and lavishly ill.u.s.trated survey is O. Chadwick, A History of Christianity A History of Christianity (London, 1995). R. Harries and H. Mayr-Harting (eds.), (London, 1995). R. Harries and H. Mayr-Harting (eds.), Christianity: Two Thousand Years Christianity: Two Thousand Years (Oxford, 2001), is the concise published result of a course of public lectures by Oxford academics celebrating the millennium. More meditative, while providing a brief chronological overview, is E. Cameron, (Oxford, 2001), is the concise published result of a course of public lectures by Oxford academics celebrating the millennium. More meditative, while providing a brief chronological overview, is E. Cameron, Interpreting Christian History: The Challenge of the Churches' Past Interpreting Christian History: The Challenge of the Churches' Past (Oxford, 2005), and a magisterial if controversial study from a major twentieth-century combatant in Roman Catholic history is H. Kung, (Oxford, 2005), and a magisterial if controversial study from a major twentieth-century combatant in Roman Catholic history is H. Kung, Christianity: Its Essence and History Christianity: Its Essence and History (London, 1995), translated from Kung's (London, 1995), translated from Kung's Christentum: Wesen und Geschichte Christentum: Wesen und Geschichte (Munich, 1994). Another more reluctant combatant, Primate of All England, compellingly distils an exceptional historical imagination into R. Williams, (Munich, 1994). Another more reluctant combatant, Primate of All England, compellingly distils an exceptional historical imagination into R. Williams, Why Study the Past? The Quest for the Historical Church Why Study the Past? The Quest for the Historical Church (London, 2005). A. F. Walls, (London, 2005). A. F. Walls, The Cross-cultural Process in Christian History: Studies in the Transmission and Appropriation of Faith The Cross-cultural Process in Christian History: Studies in the Transmission and Appropriation of Faith (Edinburgh, 2001), provides a refres.h.i.+ng perspective from an expert on the history of Christian mission, with an enviably wide chronological sweep. (Edinburgh, 2001), provides a refres.h.i.+ng perspective from an expert on the history of Christian mission, with an enviably wide chronological sweep.

Beyond these, there are multi-volume surveys of the field, notably the Oxford History of the Christian Church Oxford History of the Christian Church: a series of individually auth.o.r.ed stand-alone studies of particular periods, still sailing as majestic in their blue livery as a twentieth-century ocean liner, and edited by the brothers O. and H. Chadwick, themselves the embodiment of one era in European church history. Fine multi-auth.o.r.ed volumes of the Cambridge History of Christianity Cambridge History of Christianity cover the whole span in nine volumes, and single-auth.o.r.ed volumes in the cover the whole span in nine volumes, and single-auth.o.r.ed volumes in the I. B. Tauris History of the Christian Church I. B. Tauris History of the Christian Church provide crisp surveys also aiming to span the history of the Church. I cite particular volumes from all three of these series in section bibliographies below. The same survey task is performed by expert multiple authors in a single volume: A. Hastings (ed.), provide crisp surveys also aiming to span the history of the Church. I cite particular volumes from all three of these series in section bibliographies below. The same survey task is performed by expert multiple authors in a single volume: A. Hastings (ed.), A World History of Christianity A World History of Christianity (Grand Rapids, 1999). An astonis.h.i.+ng, not to say daunting, multi-volume account of Christian theology by one of the princes of American liberal Protestant theology is J. J. Pelikan, (Grand Rapids, 1999). An astonis.h.i.+ng, not to say daunting, multi-volume account of Christian theology by one of the princes of American liberal Protestant theology is J. J. Pelikan, The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine (5 vols., Chicago and London, 1971-89). Even more monumental, from a great Jesuit intellectual historian, is F. Copleston, (5 vols., Chicago and London, 1971-89). Even more monumental, from a great Jesuit intellectual historian, is F. Copleston, A History of Philosophy A History of Philosophy (9 vols., London, 1946-75). Western Christianity is so inextricably tangled with Western culture that it is worth consulting the comfortingly sensible synthesis of J. S. McClelland, (9 vols., London, 1946-75). Western Christianity is so inextricably tangled with Western culture that it is worth consulting the comfortingly sensible synthesis of J. S. McClelland, A History of Western Political Thought A History of Western Political Thought (London and New York, 1996). The tangle is interestingly interpreted from a cla.s.sic Jesuit background in J. O'Malley, (London and New York, 1996). The tangle is interestingly interpreted from a cla.s.sic Jesuit background in J. O'Malley, Four Cultures of the West Four Cultures of the West (Cambridge, MA, 2004). The mystical and spiritual dimension of Christianity is dealt with in L. Bouyer, (Cambridge, MA, 2004). The mystical and spiritual dimension of Christianity is dealt with in L. Bouyer, A History of Christian Spirituality A History of Christian Spirituality (3 vols., London, 1968-9). The Paulist Press (3 vols., London, 1968-9). The Paulist Press Cla.s.sics of Western Spirituality Cla.s.sics of Western Spirituality series, with volumes now running into triple figures, is a user-friendly series of translations presenting a rich variety of Western spiritual writers. One tradition within the West can be sampled in G. Rowell, K. Stevenson and R. Williams, series, with volumes now running into triple figures, is a user-friendly series of translations presenting a rich variety of Western spiritual writers. One tradition within the West can be sampled in G. Rowell, K. Stevenson and R. Williams, Love's Redeeming Work: The Anglican Quest for Holiness Love's Redeeming Work: The Anglican Quest for Holiness (Oxford, 1989). (Oxford, 1989).

Christian history lends itself to particular themes treated over long periods. A model of popular history covering two millennia is E. Duffy, Saints and Sinners: A History of the Popes Saints and Sinners: A History of the Popes (3rd edn, New Haven and London, 2006), engagingly supplemented by R. Collins, (3rd edn, New Haven and London, 2006), engagingly supplemented by R. Collins, Keepers of the Keys of Heaven: A History of the Papacy Keepers of the Keys of Heaven: A History of the Papacy (London, 2009), and, on an allied theme, there is wise guidance and exposition from N. P. Tanner, (London, 2009), and, on an allied theme, there is wise guidance and exposition from N. P. Tanner, The Councils of the Church: A Short History The Councils of the Church: A Short History (New York, 2001). Larded with ecclesiological doc.u.ments is E. G. Jay, (New York, 2001). Larded with ecclesiological doc.u.ments is E. G. Jay, The Church: Its Changing Images through Twenty Centuries The Church: Its Changing Images through Twenty Centuries (2 vols., London, 1977-8). Two books dealing in an engaging and personal manner with the everyday Christian encounter with the Christian Bible over the centuries are J. Pelikan, (2 vols., London, 1977-8). Two books dealing in an engaging and personal manner with the everyday Christian encounter with the Christian Bible over the centuries are J. Pelikan, Whose Bible Is It? A History of the Scriptures through the Ages Whose Bible Is It? A History of the Scriptures through the Ages (New York and London, 2006) and L. A. Ferrell, (New York and London, 2006) and L. A. Ferrell, The Bible and the People The Bible and the People (New Haven and London, 2008). As a counterbalance, one might care in prurient mood to read D. Nash, (New Haven and London, 2008). As a counterbalance, one might care in prurient mood to read D. Nash, Blasphemy in the Christian World: A History Blasphemy in the Christian World: A History (Oxford, 2007). C. Harline, (Oxford, 2007). C. Harline, Sunday: A History of the First Day from Babylonia to the Superbowl Sunday: A History of the First Day from Babylonia to the Superbowl (New York, 2007) has a fine eye for changing social detail. M. Rubin, (New York, 2007) has a fine eye for changing social detail. M. Rubin, Mother of G.o.d: A History of the Virgin Mary Mother of G.o.d: A History of the Virgin Mary (London and New York, 2009) brings a major a.s.sembly of literature and art and a sadly appropriate awareness of the relevance of anti-Semitism to her subject, to supplement the sparkling M. Warner, (London and New York, 2009) brings a major a.s.sembly of literature and art and a sadly appropriate awareness of the relevance of anti-Semitism to her subject, to supplement the sparkling M. Warner, Alone of All Her s.e.x: The Myth and Cult of the Virgin Mary Alone of All Her s.e.x: The Myth and Cult of the Virgin Mary (London, 1976). J. Dillenberger, (London, 1976). J. Dillenberger, Style and Content in Christian Art Style and Content in Christian Art (London, 1965) is a cla.s.sic introduction to this subject, while N. MacGregor and E. Langmuir, (London, 1965) is a cla.s.sic introduction to this subject, while N. MacGregor and E. Langmuir, Seeing Salvation: Images of Christ in Art Seeing Salvation: Images of Christ in Art (London, 2000) is an illuminating and often surprising survey. A thorough introduction to a related field is A. Doig, (London, 2000) is an illuminating and often surprising survey. A thorough introduction to a related field is A. Doig, Liturgy and Architecture from the Early Church to the Close of the Middle Ages Liturgy and Architecture from the Early Church to the Close of the Middle Ages (Aldershot, 2008), while N. Pevsner, (Aldershot, 2008), while N. Pevsner, An Outline of European Architecture An Outline of European Architecture (London, 1990), established itself as a cla.s.sic soon after publication of the original version in 1942; the (London, 1990), established itself as a cla.s.sic soon after publication of the original version in 1942; the Buildings of England/ Scotland/Wales/Ireland Buildings of England/ Scotland/Wales/Ireland series initiated by Pevsner is an architectural gazetteer of which all other countries should be envious. M. Stringer, series initiated by Pevsner is an architectural gazetteer of which all other countries should be envious. M. Stringer, A Sociological History of Christian Wors.h.i.+p A Sociological History of Christian Wors.h.i.+p (Cambridge, 2005), attempts the unenviable task of uniting sociology, history and liturgy, with fruitful results. (Cambridge, 2005), attempts the unenviable task of uniting sociology, history and liturgy, with fruitful results.

In regional studies attempting to span a whole chronology, English church history is decently served by D. L. Edwards, Christian England Christian England (rev. edn, London, 1989), while a fine team of authors providing a variety of lively spotlights on the subject is captained by S. W. Gilley and W. J. Sheils (eds.), in (rev. edn, London, 1989), while a fine team of authors providing a variety of lively spotlights on the subject is captained by S. W. Gilley and W. J. Sheils (eds.), in A History of Religion in Britain: Practice and Belief from Pre-Roman Times to the Present A History of Religion in Britain: Practice and Belief from Pre-Roman Times to the Present (Oxford, 1994). On the United States, a splendid if monumental study is S. E. Ahlstrom, (Oxford, 1994). On the United States, a splendid if monumental study is S. E. Ahlstrom, A Religious History of the American People A Religious History of the American People (2nd edn, New Haven and London, 2004), and is rivalled (indeed, exceeded in its coverage of Canada) by M. Noll, (2nd edn, New Haven and London, 2004), and is rivalled (indeed, exceeded in its coverage of Canada) by M. Noll, A History of Christianity in the United States and Canada A History of Christianity in the United States and Canada (Grand Rapids, 1992). R. E. Frykenberg, (Grand Rapids, 1992). R. E. Frykenberg, Christianity in India: From the Beginnings to the Present Christianity in India: From the Beginnings to the Present (Oxford, 2009), is the best coverage of the subject. Quite brilliant, even moving, from a partic.i.p.ant, is A. Hastings, (Oxford, 2009), is the best coverage of the subject. Quite brilliant, even moving, from a partic.i.p.ant, is A. Hastings, The Church in Africa 1450-1950 The Church in Africa 1450-1950 (Oxford, 1994), which is unfair compet.i.tion for a wise and informative longer survey also princ.i.p.ally auth.o.r.ed by a European who made Africa his life, B. Sundkler and C. Steed, (Oxford, 1994), which is unfair compet.i.tion for a wise and informative longer survey also princ.i.p.ally auth.o.r.ed by a European who made Africa his life, B. Sundkler and C. Steed, A History of the Church in Africa A History of the Church in Africa (Cambridge, 2000). An unusual and valuable collection of primary sources is K. Koschorke, F. Ludwig and M. Delgado (eds.), (Cambridge, 2000). An unusual and valuable collection of primary sources is K. Koschorke, F. Ludwig and M. Delgado (eds.), A History of Christianity in Asia, Africa, and Latin America 1450- 1990: A Doc.u.mentary Sourcebook A History of Christianity in Asia, Africa, and Latin America 1450- 1990: A Doc.u.mentary Sourcebook (Grand Rapids and Cambridge, 2007). (Grand Rapids and Cambridge, 2007).

PART I: A MILLENNIUM OF BEGINNINGS (1000 BCE-100 CE).

General Reading K. Armstrong, The Great Transformation: The World in the Time of Buddha, Socrates, Confucius and Jeremiah The Great Transformation: The World in the Time of Buddha, Socrates, Confucius and Jeremiah (London, 2006), provides a fine background survey of the great religions of ancient Europe and Asia which is not rendered redundant by being attached to the dubious concept of an 'Axial Age' in world religions. At a more detailed level, reflecting the best in contemporary scholars.h.i.+p, are the swarms of essayists marshalled by respectively W. D. Davies and L. Finkelstein (eds.), (London, 2006), provides a fine background survey of the great religions of ancient Europe and Asia which is not rendered redundant by being attached to the dubious concept of an 'Axial Age' in world religions. At a more detailed level, reflecting the best in contemporary scholars.h.i.+p, are the swarms of essayists marshalled by respectively W. D. Davies and L. Finkelstein (eds.), The Cambridge History of Judaism II: The h.e.l.lenistic Age The Cambridge History of Judaism II: The h.e.l.lenistic Age (4 vols., Cambridge, 1984-2006), and M. M. Mitch.e.l.l and F. M. Young (eds.), (4 vols., Cambridge, 1984-2006), and M. M. Mitch.e.l.l and F. M. Young (eds.), The Cambridge History of Christianity I: Origins to Constantine The Cambridge History of Christianity I: Origins to Constantine (Cambridge, 2006). A bracingly critical examination of the whole biblical text, drawing extensively on archaeology, is R. Lane Fox, (Cambridge, 2006). A bracingly critical examination of the whole biblical text, drawing extensively on archaeology, is R. Lane Fox, The Unauthorized Version: Truth and Fiction in the Bible The Unauthorized Version: Truth and Fiction in the Bible (London, 1991), while a reliable commentary both academic and devotional is J. Barton and J. Muddiman (eds.), (London, 1991), while a reliable commentary both academic and devotional is J. Barton and J. Muddiman (eds.), The Oxford Bible Commentary The Oxford Bible Commentary (Oxford, 2001). (Oxford, 2001).

1: Greece and Rome (c. 1000 BCE-100 CE) Recent starting points in understanding are R. Lane Fox, The Cla.s.sical World: An Epic History of Greece and Rome The Cla.s.sical World: An Epic History of Greece and Rome (London, 2005), and C. Kelly, (London, 2005), and C. Kelly, The Roman Empire: A Very Short Introduction The Roman Empire: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford, 2006). Among the survey works from distinguished twentieth-century cla.s.sicists which have stood the test of time are O. Murray, (Oxford, 2006). Among the survey works from distinguished twentieth-century cla.s.sicists which have stood the test of time are O. Murray, Early Greece Early Greece (rev. edn, London, 1992), M. I. Finley, (rev. edn, London, 1992), M. I. Finley, The Ancient Greeks The Ancient Greeks (London, 1963), and F. Millar with D. Berciu, R. N. Frye, G. Kossack and T. Talbot Rice, (London, 1963), and F. Millar with D. Berciu, R. N. Frye, G. Kossack and T. Talbot Rice, The Roman Empire and Its Neighbours The Roman Empire and Its Neighbours (London, 1967). T. Holland, (London, 1967). T. Holland, Rubicon: The Triumph and Tragedy of the Roman Republic Rubicon: The Triumph and Tragedy of the Roman Republic (London, 2004), is a spirited modern account of the fall of the Roman Republic, but R. Syme, (London, 2004), is a spirited modern account of the fall of the Roman Republic, but R. Syme, The Roman Revolution The Roman Revolution (Oxford, 1939), is the cla.s.sic and epic account. Still arresting in its insights is E. R. Dodds, (Oxford, 1939), is the cla.s.sic and epic account. Still arresting in its insights is E. R. Dodds, The Greeks and the Irrational The Greeks and the Irrational (Berkeley, CA, and London, 1951). (Berkeley, CA, and London, 1951).

2: Israel (c. 1000 BCE-100 CE) An engrossing and subtle introduction to the city which has so obsessed three world faiths is A. Elon, Jerusalem: City of Mirrors Jerusalem: City of Mirrors (rev. edn, London, 1996). A sound introduction to the history of ancient Israel is H. Jagersma, (rev. edn, London, 1996). A sound introduction to the history of ancient Israel is H. Jagersma, A History of Israel in the Old Testament Period A History of Israel in the Old Testament Period (London, 1982), translated from Jagersma's (London, 1982), translated from Jagersma's Geschiednis van Israel in het Oudtestamentische Tijdvak Geschiednis van Israel in het Oudtestamentische Tijdvak (Kampen, 1979), while M. Goodman, (Kampen, 1979), while M. Goodman, Rome and Jerusalem: The Clash of Ancient Civilizations Rome and Jerusalem: The Clash of Ancient Civilizations (London, 2006), is a majestic account of a tragic meeting of cultures. The monumentality and rigour of German scholars.h.i.+p on the subject is to be sampled in R. Albertz, (London, 2006), is a majestic account of a tragic meeting of cultures. The monumentality and rigour of German scholars.h.i.+p on the subject is to be sampled in R. Albertz, A History of Israelite Religion in the Old Testament Period A History of Israelite Religion in the Old Testament Period (2 vols., London, 1994), a translation of (2 vols., London, 1994), a translation of Religionsgeschichte Israels in alttestamentlicher Zeit Religionsgeschichte Israels in alttestamentlicher Zeit (2 vols., Gottingen, 1992, 1996). A nuanced and user-friendly companion to the book that emerged from ancient Israel's history is J. Barton, (2 vols., Gottingen, 1992, 1996). A nuanced and user-friendly companion to the book that emerged from ancient Israel's history is J. Barton, Reading the Old Testament Reading the Old Testament (2nd edn, London, 1996). J. Murphy O'Connor, (2nd edn, London, 1996). J. Murphy O'Connor, The Holy Land: An Oxford Archaeological Guide The Holy Land: An Oxford Archaeological Guide (Oxford, 1980), is an indispensable companion to the physical remains of the biblical and post-biblical landscape by one who knows it intimately. (Oxford, 1980), is an indispensable companion to the physical remains of the biblical and post-biblical landscape by one who knows it intimately.

Particular themes in relation to the Tanakh/Old Testament are examined by J. Blenkinsopp, A History of Prophecy in Israel A History of Prophecy in Israel (London, 1984); J. L. Crenshaw, (London, 1984); J. L. Crenshaw, Old Testament Wisdom: An Introduction Old Testament Wisdom: An Introduction (2nd edn, Louisville, 1998); E. W. Nicholson, (2nd edn, Louisville, 1998); E. W. Nicholson, G.o.d and His People: Covenant and Theology in the Old Testament G.o.d and His People: Covenant and Theology in the Old Testament (Oxford, 1986). Moving from texts canonical for both Jews and Christians, the connections of the world of early Judaism with its Christian offspring are presented via primary sources in C. K. Barrett (ed.), (Oxford, 1986). Moving from texts canonical for both Jews and Christians, the connections of the world of early Judaism with its Christian offspring are presented via primary sources in C. K. Barrett (ed.), The New Testament Background: Selected Doc.u.ments The New Testament Background: Selected Doc.u.ments (rev. edn, London, 1987). J. H. Charlesworth (ed.), (rev. edn, London, 1987). J. H. Charlesworth (ed.), The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (2 vols., Garden City, NY, 1983-5), is the most comprehensive recent collection of Jewish sacred literature beyond the Tanakh, although H. F. D. Sparks (ed.), (2 vols., Garden City, NY, 1983-5), is the most comprehensive recent collection of Jewish sacred literature beyond the Tanakh, although H. F. D. Sparks (ed.), The Apocryphal Old Testament The Apocryphal Old Testament (Oxford, 1984), is also a convenient collection of these texts. To make sense of this bewildering melange, C. Rowland, (Oxford, 1984), is also a convenient collection of these texts. To make sense of this bewildering melange, C. Rowland, The Open Heaven: A Study of Apocalyptic in Judaism and Early Christianity The Open Heaven: A Study of Apocalyptic in Judaism and Early Christianity (London, 1982), and his (London, 1982), and his Christian Origins: An Account of the Setting and Character of the Most Important Messianic Sect of Judaism Christian Origins: An Account of the Setting and Character of the Most Important Messianic Sect of Judaism (London, 1982), are masterly accounts of the Intertestamental period of Judaism and their links to the formation of Christianity. (London, 1982), are masterly accounts of the Intertestamental period of Judaism and their links to the formation of Christianity.

PART II: ONE CHURCH, ONE FAITH, ONE LORD? (4 BCE -451 CE).

General Reading No one interested in the period can abstain from the reading of E. Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (first edition from 1776); Gibbon had a fine eye for the absurdities and tragedies that result from the profession of religion. H. Chadwick, (first edition from 1776); Gibbon had a fine eye for the absurdities and tragedies that result from the profession of religion. H. Chadwick, The Early Church The Early Church (London, 1967), is still an excellent and genial way to begin study of the first five centuries of Christianity, with N. Brox, (London, 1967), is still an excellent and genial way to begin study of the first five centuries of Christianity, with N. Brox, A History of the Early Church A History of the Early Church (London, 1994), a translation of (London, 1994), a translation of Kirchengeschichte des Altertums Kirchengeschichte des Altertums (Dusseldorf, 1986), as a useful alternative. Also vintage Chadwick, though on a larger scale, is H. Chadwick, (Dusseldorf, 1986), as a useful alternative. Also vintage Chadwick, though on a larger scale, is H. Chadwick, The Church in Ancient Society: From Galilee to Gregory the Great The Church in Ancient Society: From Galilee to Gregory the Great (Oxford, 2001). S. G. Hall, (Oxford, 2001). S. G. Hall, Doctrine and Practice in the Early Church Doctrine and Practice in the Early Church (London, 1991) and C. Markschies, (London, 1991) and C. Markschies, Between Two Worlds: Structures of Early Christianity Between Two Worlds: Structures of Early Christianity (London, 1999), a translation of (London, 1999), a translation of Zwischen den Welten Wandern: Strukturen des antiken Christentums Zwischen den Welten Wandern: Strukturen des antiken Christentums (Frankfurt am Main, 1997), are good next stages for exploration. Monumental yet very readable is W. H. C. Frend, (Frankfurt am Main, 1997), are good next stages for exploration. Monumental yet very readable is W. H. C. Frend, The Rise of Christianity The Rise of Christianity (London, 1984). For the whole period up to the Council of Nicaea, the indispensable collection of doc.u.ments with commentary is J. Stevenson (ed.), rev. W. H. C. Frend, (London, 1984). For the whole period up to the Council of Nicaea, the indispensable collection of doc.u.ments with commentary is J. Stevenson (ed.), rev. W. H. C. Frend, A New Eusebius: Doc.u.ments Ill.u.s.trating the History of the Church to A New Eusebius: Doc.u.ments Ill.u.s.trating the History of the Church to AD AD 337 337 (London, 1987). (London, 1987).

3: A Crucified Messiah (4 BCE-100 CE) L. T. Johnson, The Writings of the New Testament The Writings of the New Testament (rev. edn, Minneapolis, 1999), is a straightforward and helpful way into the subject, from which one might progress to J. Jeremias, (rev. edn, Minneapolis, 1999), is a straightforward and helpful way into the subject, from which one might progress to J. Jeremias, New Testament Theology New Testament Theology (London, 1971). It will be a revelation to some readers of the Bible to see the texts of the Gospels arranged side by side to demonstrate their variant forms and development, which is most instructively done by using K. Aland (ed.), (London, 1971). It will be a revelation to some readers of the Bible to see the texts of the Gospels arranged side by side to demonstrate their variant forms and development, which is most instructively done by using K. Aland (ed.), Synopsis of the Four Gospels, Greek-English Edition of the Synopsis Quattuor Evangeliorum Synopsis of the Four Gospels, Greek-English Edition of the Synopsis Quattuor Evangeliorum (9th edn, Stuttgart, 1989), derived from the German original of 1964, K. Aland (ed.), (9th edn, Stuttgart, 1989), derived from the German original of 1964, K. Aland (ed.), Synopsis quattuor Evangeliorum, locis parallelis Evangeliorum apocryphorum et patrum adhibitis Synopsis quattuor Evangeliorum, locis parallelis Evangeliorum apocryphorum et patrum adhibitis. C. M. Tuckett, Reading the New Testament: Methods of Interpretation Reading the New Testament: Methods of Interpretation (London, 1987), will help those sh.e.l.l-shocked by such perusal to make sense of the picture. (London, 1987), will help those sh.e.l.l-shocked by such perusal to make sense of the picture.

Three edited collections of essays are exceptionally useful introductions to twentieth-century controversies on the Gospels: G. Stanton (ed.), The Interpretation of Matthew The Interpretation of Matthew (Philadelphia and London, 1983), W. Telford (ed.), (Philadelphia and London, 1983), W. Telford (ed.), The Interpretation of Mark The Interpretation of Mark (Philadelphia and London, 1985), J. Ashton (ed.), (Philadelphia and London, 1985), J. Ashton (ed.), The Interpretation of John The Interpretation of John (Philadelphia and London, 1986). Well worth reading, although like most of the literature it a.s.sumes the unity in authors.h.i.+p of Luke's Gospel and the Book of Acts, is H. Conzelmann, (Philadelphia and London, 1986). Well worth reading, although like most of the literature it a.s.sumes the unity in authors.h.i.+p of Luke's Gospel and the Book of Acts, is H. Conzelmann, The Theology of Luke The Theology of Luke (London, 1960), from the original (London, 1960), from the original Die Mitte der Zeit Die Mitte der Zeit (Tubingen, 1953). A cla.s.sic a.n.a.lysis of the material underlying the Synoptic Gospels is T. W. Manson, (Tubingen, 1953). A cla.s.sic a.n.a.lysis of the material underlying the Synoptic Gospels is T. W. Manson, The Sayings of Jesus as Recorded in the Gospels According to St Matthew and St Luke The Sayings of Jesus as Recorded in the Gospels According to St Matthew and St Luke (London, 1957), first published as Part II of T. W. Manson, (London, 1957), first published as Part II of T. W. Manson, The Mission and Message of Jesus The Mission and Message of Jesus (London, 1937); and G. N. Stanton, (London, 1937); and G. N. Stanton, The Gospels and Jesus The Gospels and Jesus (Oxford, 1989), shows where scholars.h.i.+p has subsequently travelled. Engaging little accounts of crucial parts of the texts raising large questions about them are the trilogy of G. Vermes, (Oxford, 1989), shows where scholars.h.i.+p has subsequently travelled. Engaging little accounts of crucial parts of the texts raising large questions about them are the trilogy of G. Vermes, The Pa.s.sion The Pa.s.sion (London, 2005), (London, 2005), The Nativity The Nativity (London, 2006) and (London, 2006) and The Resurrection The Resurrection (London, 2008). Our growing sense of the rootedness of Jesus in his culture is ably explored in J. Barclay and J. Sweet (eds.), (London, 2008). Our growing sense of the rootedness of Jesus in his culture is ably explored in J. Barclay and J. Sweet (eds.), Early Christianity in Its Jewish Context Early Christianity in Its Jewish Context (Cambridge, 1996), while G. Vermes, (Cambridge, 1996), while G. Vermes, Jesus the Jew Jesus the Jew (London, 1973) and E. P. Sanders, (London, 1973) and E. P. Sanders, Jesus and Judaism Jesus and Judaism (London, 1985) are both sensitive but contrasting treatments of the subject. (London, 1985) are both sensitive but contrasting treatments of the subject.

4: Boundaries Defined (50 CE-300) D. G. Horrell, An Introduction to the Study of Paul An Introduction to the Study of Paul (London and New York, 2000), leads in to the subject, which is stimulatingly developed in E. P. Sanders, (London and New York, 2000), leads in to the subject, which is stimulatingly developed in E. P. Sanders, Paul, the Law and the Jewish People Paul, the Law and the Jewish People (Philadelphia, 1983). W. A. Meeks, (Philadelphia, 1983). W. A. Meeks, The First Urban Christians: The Social World of the Apostle Paul The First Urban Christians: The Social World of the Apostle Paul (New Haven and London, 1983) is a helpful attempt to apply a historical and social imagination to data supplied in the Pauline letters and Acts. W. Horbury, (New Haven and London, 1983) is a helpful attempt to apply a historical and social imagination to data supplied in the Pauline letters and Acts. W. Horbury, Jews and Christians in Contact and Controversy Jews and Christians in Contact and Controversy (Edinburgh, 1998) emphasizes the continuing Christian relations.h.i.+p with Judaism. L. W. Hurtado (Edinburgh, 1998) emphasizes the continuing Christian relations.h.i.+p with Judaism. L. W. Hurtado, The Earliest Christian Artifacts: Ma.n.u.scripts and Christian Origins (Grand Rapids, 2006), and F. Young, (Grand Rapids, 2006), and F. Young, The Making of the Creeds The Making of the Creeds (London, 1991), are two explorations of what began to make Christianity different. C. Markschies, (London, 1991), are two explorations of what began to make Christianity different. C. Markschies, Gnosis: An Introduction Gnosis: An Introduction (Edinburgh, 2003), originally published as (Edinburgh, 2003), originally published as Die Gnosis Die Gnosis (Munich, 2001), is a fine exposition of what we know of the alternative futures of early Christianity; more controversial, though now something of a cla.s.sic for many, is E. Pagels, (Munich, 2001), is a fine exposition of what we know of the alternative futures of early Christianity; more controversial, though now something of a cla.s.sic for many, is E. Pagels, The Gnostic Gospels The Gnostic Gospels (New York, 1979). (New York, 1979).

5: The Prince: Ally or Enemy? (100- 300) E. R. Dodds, Christian and Pagan in an Age of Anxiety: Some Aspects of Religious Experience from Marcus Aurelius to Constantine Christian and Pagan in an Age of Anxiety: Some Aspects of Religious Experience from Marcus Aurelius to Constantine (Cambridge, 1965), is a cla.s.sic exploration of an obscure period, one vital moment of which is re-examined in R. Selinger, (Cambridge, 1965), is a cla.s.sic exploration of an obscure period, one vital moment of which is re-examined in R. Selinger, The Mid-third Century Persecutions of Decius and Valerian The Mid-third Century Persecutions of Decius and Valerian (Frankfurt am Main, 2002). An exceptional study is R. Lane Fox, (Frankfurt am Main, 2002). An exceptional study is R. Lane Fox, Pagans and Christians in the Mediterranean World from the Second Century Pagans and Christians in the Mediterranean World from the Second Century AD AD to the Conversion of Constantine to the Conversion of Constantine (London, 1986). An important time-capsule from Syria is presented in C. Hopkins, ed. B. Goldman, (London, 1986). An important time-capsule from Syria is presented in C. Hopkins, ed. B. Goldman, The Discovery of Dura-Europos The Discovery of Dura-Europos (New Haven and London, 1979). (New Haven and London, 1979).

6: The Imperial Church (300- 451) The turning point created by Constantine is still best encountered through a remarkable example of how to present history compellingly for novices, A. H. M. Jones, Constantine and the Conversion of Europe Constantine and the Conversion of Europe (London, 1948); thereafter, the consequences of Constantine's decision are richly depicted by the essayists of A. Casiday and F. W. Norris (eds.), (London, 1948); thereafter, the consequences of Constantine's decision are richly depicted by the essayists of A. Casiday and F. W. Norris (eds.), The Cambridge History of Christianity 2: Constantine to c. 1600 The Cambridge History of Christianity 2: Constantine to c. 1600 (Cambridge, 2007). More concise and a delightful guide to the otherwise often arid-seeming theological controversies of the age is F. Young, (Cambridge, 2007). More concise and a delightful guide to the otherwise often arid-seeming theological controversies of the age is F. Young, From Nicaea to Chalcedon From Nicaea to Chalcedon (London, 1983). Indispensable are the primary sources and incisive commentary of J. Stevenson (ed.), rev. W. H. C. Frend, (London, 1983). Indispensable are the primary sources and incisive commentary of J. Stevenson (ed.), rev. W. H. C. Frend, Creeds, Councils and Controversies: Doc.u.ments Ill.u.s.trating the History of the Church Creeds, Councils and Controversies: Doc.u.ments Ill.u.s.trating the History of the Church AD AD 337-461 337-461 (London, 1989). A crucial episode of this period long-misrepresented in the Church's telling of its own story is sensitively reinterpreted by a master of the tradition, R. Williams, (London, 1989). A crucial episode of this period long-misrepresented in the Church's telling of its own story is sensitively reinterpreted by a master of the tradition, R. Williams, Arius: Heresy and Tradition Arius: Heresy and Tradition (2nd edn, London, 2001), and valuably further dissected by one of Williams' admirers, L. Ayres, (2nd edn, London, 2001), and valuably further dissected by one of Williams' admirers, L. Ayres, Nicaea and Its Legacy: An Approach to 4th-century Trinitarian Orthodoxy Nicaea and Its Legacy: An Approach to 4th-century Trinitarian Orthodoxy (Oxford, 2004). A vital development of the period is absorbingly reconstructed in E. D. Hunt, (Oxford, 2004). A vital development of the period is absorbingly reconstructed in E. D. Hunt, Holy Land Pilgrimage in the Later Roman Empire, Holy Land Pilgrimage in the Later Roman Empire, AD AD 312- 460 312- 460 (Oxford, 1984). (Oxford, 1984).

PART III: VANIs.h.i.+NG FUTURES: EAST AND SOUTH (451-1500).

General Reading As yet, the stories of the non-Chalcedonian Churches of Asia and Africa have not fully escaped into the public domain from a mound of exciting and innovative academic research, but there are useful starter essays in sections of K. Parry (ed.), The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity (Oxford, 2007). A s.h.i.+ning exception to the rule, on the Dyophysite Christian tradition, beautifully ill.u.s.trated partly with the author's own photographs after a lifetime of travel, is C. Baumer, (Oxford, 2007). A s.h.i.+ning exception to the rule, on the Dyophysite Christian tradition, beautifully ill.u.s.trated partly with the author's own photographs after a lifetime of travel, is C. Baumer, The Church of the East: An Ill.u.s.trated History of a.s.syrian Christianity The Church of the East: An Ill.u.s.trated History of a.s.syrian Christianity (London and New York, 2006). Two other fine introductions are I. Gillman and H.-J. Klimheit, (London and New York, 2006). Two other fine introductions are I. Gillman and H.-J. Klimheit, Christians in Asia before 1500 Christians in Asia before 1500 (Richmond, 1999), and P. Jenkins, (Richmond, 1999), and P. Jenkins, The Lost History of Christianity: The Thousand-year Golden Age of the Church in the Middle East, Africa and Asia The Lost History of Christianity: The Thousand-year Golden Age of the Church in the Middle East, Africa and Asia (New York, 2008). (New York, 2008).

7: Defying Chalcedon: Asia and Africa (451- 622) Excellent background is provided in A. Cameron, The Mediterranean World in Late Antiquity, The Mediterranean World in Late Antiquity, AD AD 395-600 395-600 (London, 1993), and W. A. Kaegi, (London, 1993), and W. A. Kaegi, Heraclius, Emperor of Byzantium Heraclius, Emperor of Byzantium (Cambridge, 2003) is a study of the crucial moment before the coming of Islam changed all rules of the game in the Middle East. Fascinating if monumental studies of a world previously forgotten are I. Shahid, (Cambridge, 2003) is a study of the crucial moment before the coming of Islam changed all rules of the game in the Middle East. Fascinating if monumental studies of a world previously forgotten are I. Shahid, Byzantium and the Arabs in the Fifth Century Byzantium and the Arabs in the Fifth Century (Was.h.i.+ngton, DC, 1989) and I. Shahid, (Was.h.i.+ngton, DC, 1989) and I. Shahid, Byzantium and the Arabs in the Sixth Century Byzantium and the Arabs in the Sixth Century (Was.h.i.+ngton, DC, 3 vols. so far, 1995-2002). (Was.h.i.+ngton, DC, 3 vols. so far, 1995-2002).

8: Islam: The Great Realignment (622- 1500) Two vigorous introductory surveys are R. Fletcher, The Cross and the Crescent: Christianity and Islam from Muhammad to the Reformation The Cross and the Crescent: Christianity and Islam from Muhammad to the Reformation (London, 2003), and Z. Karabell, (London, 2003), and Z. Karabell, People of the Book: The Forgotten History of Islam and the West People of the Book: The Forgotten History of Islam and the West (London, 2007), the latter being rather consciously directed to modern American concerns. Now cla.s.sic is a strange but creative text, P. Crone and M. Cook, (London, 2007), the latter being rather consciously directed to modern American concerns. Now cla.s.sic is a strange but creative text, P. Crone and M. Cook, Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World (Cambridge, 1977), while a wise reflection by a lifelong episcopal enthusiast for the subject is K. Cragg, (Cambridge, 1977), while a wise reflection by a lifelong episcopal enthusiast for the subject is K. Cragg, The Arab Christian: A History in the Middle East The Arab Christian: A History in the Middle East (London, 1992). Equally magisterial is S. H. Griffith, (London, 1992). Equally magisterial is S. H. Griffith, The Church in the Shadow of the Mosque: Christians and Muslims in the World of Islam The Church in the Shadow of the Mosque: Christians and Muslims in the World of Islam (Princeton, 2008). A masterly study of the crisis caused by the Mongols with a wider perspective than its already wide t.i.tle implies is P. Jackson, (Princeton, 2008). A masterly study of the crisis caused by the Mongols with a wider perspective than its already wide t.i.tle implies is P. Jackson, The Mongols and the West, 1221-1410 The Mongols and the West, 1221-1410 (Harlow, 2005). Richly enjoyable in its no-nonsense sifting of probability from wishful thinking in Ethiopian Church history is S. Munro-Hay, (Harlow, 2005). Richly enjoyable in its no-nonsense sifting of probability from wishful thinking in Ethiopian Church history is S. Munro-Hay, The Quest for the Ark of the Covenant: The True History of the Tablets of Moses The Quest for the Ark of the Covenant: The True History of the Tablets of Moses (London, 2006). (London, 2006).

PART IV: THE UNPREDICTABLE RISE OF ROME (300-1300).

Christianity - The First Three Thousand Years Part 36

You're reading novel Christianity - The First Three Thousand Years Part 36 online at LightNovelFree.com. You can use the follow function to bookmark your favorite novel ( Only for registered users ). If you find any errors ( broken links, can't load photos, etc.. ), Please let us know so we can fix it as soon as possible. And when you start a conversation or debate about a certain topic with other people, please do not offend them just because you don't like their opinions.


Christianity - The First Three Thousand Years Part 36 summary

You're reading Christianity - The First Three Thousand Years Part 36. This novel has been translated by Updating. Author: Diarmaid MacCulloch already has 518 views.

It's great if you read and follow any novel on our website. We promise you that we'll bring you the latest, hottest novel everyday and FREE.

LightNovelFree.com is a most smartest website for reading novel online, it can automatic resize images to fit your pc screen, even on your mobile. Experience now by using your smartphone and access to LightNovelFree.com